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 UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


FORM 10-K




(Mark One)




ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934



 

For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2023



 

OR



 

 



 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934



 

For the transition period from                 to


 

Commission File Number

001-31648

 

EURONET WORLDWIDE, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

________________________

 

Delaware 

74-2806888

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Suite 300  
Leawood, Kansas  66211
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)


(913) 327-4200

(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock 

EEFT 

Nasdaq Global Select Market 

1.375% Senior Notes due 2026  

EEFT26  

Nasdaq Global Market 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

_________________________


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No ☐


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No ☐





Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


Large accelerated filer 


Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 


Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No

 

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $5.5 billion. The aggregate market value was determined based on the closing price of the Common Stock on June 30, 2023

 

As of February 21, 2024, the registrant had 45,782,740 shares of Common Stock outstanding. 

 

Documents Incorporated By Reference

 

Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


 



EURONET WORLDWIDE, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Table of Content

Page Number

Item Number Item Description



Part I
1
Item 1. Business 1
Item 1A. Risk Factors 18
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 33
Item 1C. Cybersecurity Risk Mangement and Strategy 33
Item 2. Properties 35
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 35
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 35



Part II
35
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 35
Item 6. Reserved 37
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 37
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk 57
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 59
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 102
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 102
Item 9B. Other Information 103
Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections 103



Part III 103
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 103
Item 11. Executive Compensation 103
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 103
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence 103
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services 103



Part IV
104
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules 104




Signatures 108


 

Item 1. Business

 

References in this report to "we," "our," "us," the "Company" and "Euronet" refer to Euronet Worldwide, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

Business Overview

 

General Overview

 

Euronet is a leader in electronic payment and transaction processing solutions for Financial Institutions, Retailers, Service Providers, and Individual Consumers utilizing our global payments network, platforms, and technologies. Through a collection of diverse technologies and services, our business segments and solutions meet a wide variety of payments requirements and process transactions throughout the world. We move money in all the ways the world depends on. With a global footprint we provide compliant solutions that make financial transactions easier, faster, and secure.

 

Core Business Segments

We operate in the following three segments as of December 31, 2023:


Electronic Funds Transfer ("EFT") Segment


Our Electronic Funds Transfer ("EFT") segment meets the needs of financial institutions and consumers through Euronet-owned and outsourced Automated Teller Machines ("ATMs") and Point-of-Sale ("POS") terminals combined with value added and transaction processing services. We deploy and operate our own ATMs, providing ATM services for financial institutions and providing electronic payment processing solutions. EFT offers a suite of integrated electronic financial transaction software solutions for electronic payment and transaction delivery systems. Transactions processed span a network of 47,303 ATMs, as of December 31,2023, and approximately 656,000 POS terminals. In 2023, the EFT Processing Segment accounted for approximately 29% of Euronet's consolidated revenues.

epay Segment

Our epay segment provides retail payment solutions and delivers innovative connections between the digital content of the world’s leading brands and consumers. epay has one of the largest retail networks across Europe and Asia for the distribution of physical and digital third-party content, including branded payments, mobile, and alternative payments, partnering with 1,000+ of the world’s leading brands. In addition, through our own products, we have leveraged our technology to solve business challenges, delivering scalable solutions to drive efficiency and effectiveness. Our comprehensive range of consumer products simplifies transactions and provides financial convenience across a wide range of branded payments. epay operates in 60+ countries. We operate a network that includes approximately 821,000 POS terminals that enable electronic processing of prepaid mobile airtime "top-up" services and other digital media content. In 2023, the epay Segment accounted for approximately 29% of Euronet's consolidated revenues.


Money Transfer Segment


Our Money Transfer segment provides global money transfers and currency exchange information in retail stores, apps, and websites through Ria Money Transfer, Xe and the Dandelion cross-border real-time payments network. Euronet’s Money Transfer segment offers real-time, cross-border payments to consumers and businesses across 198 countries and territories, enabling banks, fintechs and big tech platforms to integrate an international payments solution into their own platforms.  In 2023, the Money Transfer Segment accounted for approximately 42% of Euronet's consolidated revenues.


Ria Money Transfer, one of the largest consumer remittance companies in the world offers real-time international money transfers with a special focus on emerging markets. In addition, Ria offers safe and affordable money transfers through a global network of cash locations and online, serving over 20 million customers annually.

 

Xe offers web and app based currency information and industry-leading consumer and business cross border money transfer services. Customers can send money, buy property overseas, and execute other international payments via the Xe website or app.

 

Dandelion is a leading real-time cross-border payment platform; it offers consumer and business transaction processing and fulfillment with alternative payout channels like bank accounts, cash pick-up and mobile wallets. Dandelion powers cross-border payments for Xe and Ria, as well as third party banks, fintechs, and big tech platforms. 


1



Historical Perspective


Graphics


Euronet started in Central Europe in 1994 and has grown to become a global real-time digital and cash payments network with millions of touchpoints today, With products and services in more than 200 countries and territories provided through its own brand and branded business segments, Euronet and its financial technologies and networks offer payment transaction services. Euronet serves clients from 67 offices worldwide.


Business Segment Overview

 

For a discussion of operating results by segment, please see Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Note 18, Business Segment Information, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.


EFT Processing Segment


Overview

 

Our EFT Processing Segment provides comprehensive electronic payment solutions consisting of ATM cash withdrawal and deposit services, ATM network participation, outsourced ATM and POS management solutions, credit, debit and prepaid card outsourcing, card issuing and merchant acquiring services. In addition to our core business, we offer a variety of value-added services, including ATM and POS DCC, domestic and international surcharge, foreign currency dispensing, advertising, digital content sales at ATMs, Customer Relationship Management ("CRM"), prepaid mobile top-up, bill payment, money transfer, fraud management, foreign remittance payout, cardless payout, banknote recycling solutions and tax-refund services. We provide these services either through our Euronet-owned ATMs and POS terminals, through contracts under which we operate ATMs and POS terminals on behalf of our customers or, for certain services, as stand-alone products. Through this segment, we also offer a suite of integrated electronic financial transaction software solutions for electronic payment and transaction delivery systems. 

 Sources of Revenues

The primary sources of revenues generated by our ATM network are recurring monthly management fees, transaction-based fees, surcharges, and margins earned on DCC transactions. We receive fixed monthly fees under many of our outsourced management contracts. The EFT Processing Segment also generates revenues from POS operations and merchant management, card network management for credit, debit, prepaid and loyalty cards, prepaid mobile airtime recharge and other electronic content on ATMs and ATM advertising. We primarily operate across Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia Pacific, and the United States. As of December 31, 2023, we operated 47,303 ATMs compared to 45,009 at December 31, 2022.

2


We monitor the number of transactions made by cardholders on our network. These include cash withdrawals, balance inquiries, deposits, prepaid mobile airtime recharge purchases, DCC transactions and certain denied (unauthorized) transactions. We do not bill certain transactions on our network to financial institutions, and we have excluded these transactions for reporting purposes. The number of transactions processed over our networks has increased over the last five years at a compound annual growth rate ("CAGR") of approximately 29.1% as indicated in the following table:


(in millions)

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

EFT Processing Segment transactions per year

3,052

3,275

4,366

6,459

8,473

 

The increase in transactions for the past few years is the result of a significant increase in the volume of lower value, digitally initiated payment processing transactions for an Asia Pacific customer's bank wallet and e-commerce site. The associated revenue of these lower value, digitally initiated payment processing transactions is lower. As a result, our revenue growth will not correlate proportionately with the increase in our transaction volume growth.


Our processing centers for the EFT Processing Segment are located in Germany, Hungary, India, China, and Pakistan. Our processing centers run two types of proprietary transaction switching software: our legacy ITM software, which we have used and sold to financial institutions since 1998 through our Software Solutions unit, and an innovative switching software package named "Ren", which is hosted in Germany and India, that was released in 2019. The processing centers operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week. We have been progressively transitioning all of our networks to Ren.


EFT Processing Products and Services


Outsourced Management Solutions


Euronet offers outsourced management solutions to financial institutions, merchants, mobile phone operators and other organizations using our processing centers' electronic financial transaction processing software. Our outsourced management solutions include management of existing ATM networks, development of new ATM networks, management of POS networks, management of automated deposit terminals, management of credit, debit and prepaid card databases and other financial processing services. These solutions include 24-hour monitoring of each ATM's status and cash condition, managing the cash levels in each ATM, coordinating the cash delivery, and providing automatic dispatches for necessary service calls. We also provide real-time transaction authorization, advanced monitoring, network gateway access, network switching, 24-hour customer service, maintenance, cash settlement and reconciliation, forecasting, and reporting. Since our infrastructure can support a significant increase in transactions, new outsourced management solutions agreements should provide additional revenue with lower incremental cost.


Our outsourced management solutions agreements generally provide for fixed monthly management fees and, in most cases, fees payable for each transaction. The transaction fees under these agreements are generally lower than those under card acceptance agreements.

 

Euronet-Branded ATM Transaction Processing

 

Our Euronet-branded ATM networks, also known as IAD networks, are primarily managed by a processing center that uses our market-leading internally developed software solutions. The ATMs in our IAD networks are able to process transactions for holders of credit, debit and prepaid products issued by or bearing the logos of financial institutions and international card organizations such as American Express®, Visa®, Mastercard®, JCB, Diners Club International®, Discover® and UnionPay International©, as well as international ATM networks such as PLUS, CIRRUS and PULSE® or domestic networks such as NYCE, Shazam, AFFN, STAR and others across North America. This is accomplished through our agreements and relationships with these institutions, international credit, debit and prepaid card issuers, international card associations and domestic card associations.


3



When a bank cardholder conducts a transaction on a Euronet-owned ATM or automated deposit terminal, we receive a fee from the cardholder's bank for that transaction. The bank pays us this fee either directly or indirectly through a central switching and settlement network. When paid indirectly, this fee is referred to as the "interchange fee." We receive transaction processing fees for successful transactions and, in certain circumstances, for transactions that are not completed because they fail to receive authorization. The fees paid to us by the card issuers are independent of any fees charged by the card issuers to cardholders in connection with the ATM transactions. In some cases, we may also charge a direct access fee or surcharge to cardholders at the ATM. The direct access fee is added to the amount of the cash withdrawal and debited from the cardholder's account.


We generally receive fees or earn margin from our customers for all types of ATM transactions:


Card Acceptance or Sponsorship Agreements


Our agreements with financial institutions and international card organizations generally provide that all credit and debit cards issued by the financial institution or organization may be used at all ATMs that we operate in for a given market. In most markets, we operate under sponsorship by our own e-money or payment service licensed entities. In some markets, we have agreements with a financial institution under which we are designated as a service provider (which we refer to as "sponsorship agreements") for the acceptance of domestic cards and/or cards bearing international logos, such as Visa® and Mastercard®. These card acceptance or sponsorship agreements allow us to receive transaction authorization directly from the card issuing institution or international card organizations on a stand-in basis. Our agreements generally provide for a term of three to seven years and renew automatically unless either party provides notice of non-renewal prior to the termination date. In some cases, the agreements are terminable by either party upon six months' notice. We are generally able to connect a financial institution to our network within 30 to 90 days of signing a card acceptance agreement. The financial institution provides the cash needed to complete transactions on the ATM, but we provide a significant portion of the cash to our IAD network to fund ATM transactions ourselves. Euronet is generally liable for the cash in the ATM networks.


Under our card acceptance agreements, the ATM transaction fees we charge vary depending on the type of transaction and the number of transactions attributable to a particular card issuer. Our agreements generally provide for payment in local currency, though transaction fees are sometimes denominated in euros or U.S. dollars. Transaction fees are billed to financial institutions and card organizations with payment terms typically no longer than one month.


Dynamic Currency Conversion


We offer dynamic currency conversion, or DCC, over our IAD networks, ATM networks that we operate on an outsourced basis for financial institutions, and over financial institutions' ATM networks or POS devices as a stand-alone service. DCC is a feature of the underlying ATM or POS transaction that is offered to customers completing transactions using a foreign debit or credit card issued in a country with a currency other than the currency where the ATM or POS is located. The customer is offered a choice between completing the transaction in the local currency or in the customer's home currency via a DCC transaction. If a cardholder chooses to perform a DCC transaction, the acquirer or processor performs the foreign exchange conversion at the time that the funds are delivered at an ATM or the transactions are completed through the POS terminal, which results in a pre-defined amount of the customer's home currency being charged to their card. Alternatively, the customer may have the transaction converted by the card issuing bank, in which the amount of local currency is communicated to the card issuing bank and the card issuing bank makes the conversion to the customer's home currency.


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When a customer chooses DCC at an ATM or POS device and Euronet acts as the acquirer or processor, we receive all or a portion of the foreign exchange margin on the conversion of the transaction. On our IAD ATMs, Euronet receives the entire foreign exchange margin. If Euronet is not the acquirer or processor of the transaction, we share the DCC revenue with the sponsor bank. On ATMs or POS devices that are operated for financial institutions, or where we offer DCC as a stand-alone service to financial institutions or merchants, we share the foreign exchange margin. The foreign exchange margin on a DCC transaction increases the amount Euronet earns from the underlying ATM or POS transaction and supports deployment of additional ATMs in new locations.


Other Products and Services

 

Our network of owned or operated ATMs allows for the sale of additional financial and other products or services at a low incremental cost. We have developed value-added services in addition to basic cash withdrawal and balance inquiry transactions. These value-added services include mobile top-up, fraud management, bill payment, domestic and international surcharge, CRM, foreign remittance payout, cardless payout, banknote recycling, electronic content, ticket and voucher, foreign currency withdrawal, advertising and tax-refund services. We are committed to the ongoing development of innovative new products and services to offer our EFT processing customers.

 

Euronet offers multinational merchants a Single European Payments Area ("SEPA")-compliant cross-border transaction processing solution. SEPA is an area in which all electronic payments can be made and received in euros, whether between or within national boundaries, under the same basic conditions, rights, and obligations, regardless of the location. This single, centralized acquiring platform enables merchants to benefit from cost savings and faster, more efficient payments transfer. Although many European countries are not members of the eurozone, our platform can serve merchants in these countries as well, through our multi-currency functionality.

 

Software Solutions

 

We also offer a suite of integrated software solutions for electronic payments and transaction delivery systems. We generate revenues for our software products from licensing, professional services and maintenance fees for software and sales of related hardware, primarily to financial institutions around the world. 


Ren Payments Platform

 

Ren was built from the ground up to operate in the evolving digital payments landscape of real-time settlements and emerging forms of payment, including QR codes, PINs and biometrics. Ren primarily serves financial institutions, central banks and fintech companies. It is offered as an on-premise technology where these businesses install the platform in their own data centers or as a software as a service (SaaS) offering where development teams access it in Euronet’s global data centers using APIs. Versatile, Ren can be used as a payment hub or to deliver core banking functionality such as issuing, merchant acquiring, transaction switching, and ATM management. For real-time payments, Ren is used by central banks to process transactions and member banks that use Ren to connect their legacy systems to real-time payment networks in their countries.


EFT Processing Segment Strategy


The EFT Processing Segment maintains a strategy to expand the network of ATMs and POS terminals into new and existing markets that have the greatest potential for growth. We continue to focus on diversifying our business by expanding our market presence and product portfolio, as well as outsourcing opportunities. In addition, we follow a supporting strategy to increase the penetration of value added (or complementary) services across our existing customer base, including DCC, transaction-based fees, surcharge, cardless payment, banknote recycling solutions, tax refund services, advertising, fraud management, bill payment, mobile top-up, CRM and foreign remittance payout. 


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We continually strive to make our own ATM networks more efficient by removing unprofitable ATMs and redeploying them to new profitable locations. We make selective additions to our own ATM network if we see market demand and profit opportunities. In tourist locations, we also seasonally deactivate ATMs when tourist activity is low.
 
In recent years, the need for "all-in" services has increased. Banks, particularly smaller banks, are increasingly looking for integrated ATM, POS and card issuing processing and management services. Euronet is well positioned for this opportunity as it can offer a full end-to-end solution to potential partners.
Additional growth opportunities are driven through financial institutions that are receptive to outsourcing the operation of their ATM, POS and card networks. The operation of these devices requires expensive hardware and software and specialized personnel. These resources are available to us, and we offer them to our customers under outsourcing contracts. The expansion and enhancement of our outsourced management solutions in new and existing markets will remain an important business opportunity for Euronet. Increasing the number of non-owned ATMs and POS terminals that we operate under management services agreements and continued development of our credit, debit and prepaid card outsourcing business could provide continued growth while minimizing our capital investment.

In addition, complementary services offered by our epay Segment, where we provide prepaid mobile top-up services through POS terminals, strengthens the EFT Processing Segment's line of services. We plan to continue to expand our technology and business methods into other markets where we operate and further leverage our relationships with mobile operators, other content providers and financial institutions to facilitate that expansion.

Seasonality

Our EFT Processing business experiences its heaviest demand for cash withdrawals and DCC during the third quarter of the fiscal year, coinciding with the tourism season. It is also impacted by seasonality during the fourth quarter and first quarter of each year due to higher transaction levels during the holiday season and lower levels after the holiday season. This seasonality is increased due to our practice of seasonally deactivating ATMs in tourist locations that experience significantly higher traffic during their peak tourist seasons. Seasonally deactivating involves shutting down the ATMs during the slower months and results in lower overall transaction volumes in the EFT Processing Segment during those months. As we have expanded our IAD network in tourist locations, the financial impact of seasonally deactivating has increased, because we continue to bear the expense of seasonally deactivated ATMs even though they do not generate transactions during the slower months.

Significant Customers and Government Contracts

No individual customer of the EFT Processing Segment makes up greater than 10% of total consolidated revenues. EFT maintains contract relationships with a number of banks, financial institutions, telecommunications companies, and clients whose ownership includes the government. 

Competition

Our principal EFT Processing Segment competitors include ATM networks owned by financial institutions and national switches consisting of consortiums of local banks that provide outsourcing and transaction services to financial institutions and independent ATM deployers in a particular country. Additionally, large, well-financed companies that operate ATMs offer ATM network and outsourcing services, and those that provide card outsourcing, POS processing and merchant acquiring services also compete with us in various markets. Small local operators have also recently begun offering their services, particularly in the IAD market. None of these competitors has a dominant market share in any of our markets. Competitive advantages in our EFT Processing Segment include breadth of service offering, network availability and response time, price to both the financial institution and to its customers, ATM location and access to other networks. 


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epay Segment

 

Overview

 

We currently process and distribute prepaid mobile airtime and other electronic content and payment processing services for various prepaid products, cards, and services on a network of approximately 821,000 POS terminals across approximately 352,000 retailer locations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific, North America and South America. Our processing centers for the epay segment are located in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and the United States.

 

We have continued to expand our prepaid business in new and existing markets by drawing upon our depth of experience to build and expand relationships with content providers, mobile operators, and retailers. We offer a wide range of products across our retail networks, including prepaid mobile airtime, prepaid debit cards, prepaid gift cards, other prepaid electronic content such as music, games and software, prepaid vouchers, transport payments and lottery, and bill payment processing assistance through partnerships with various licensed money transmitters.


Sources of Revenues

 

The epay Segment generates commissions and processing fees from the distribution of electronic content from mobile operators and other content providers. In 2023, approximately 67% of total revenues and approximately 74% of gross profit for the epay Segment was from electronic content other than prepaid mobile airtime (digital media products).

 

Customers purchase digital media prepaid content as a gift or for self-use. Content is generally purchased in two ways: (1) directly online from the content provider using an online payment method, or (2) through physical retail stores, online retailers, or other electronic channels, including payment wallets, online banking, mobile applications, and other sources.

 

Customers using mobile phones generally pay for usage in one of two ways: (1) through "postpaid" accounts, where usage is billed at the end of each billing period, or (2) through "prepaid" accounts, where customers pay in advance by crediting their accounts prior to usage.

 

Although mobile operators in the U.S. and certain European countries have provided service principally through postpaid accounts, the norm in many other countries in Europe and the rest of the world is to offer wireless service on a prepaid basis.

 

Prepaid mobile phone credits are generally distributed using personal identification numbers ("PINs"). We distribute PINs in two ways. First, we establish an electronic connection to the mobile operator and the retailer. When the sale to a customer is initiated, the terminal requests the PIN from the mobile operator via our transaction processing platform. These transactions obtain the PIN directly from the mobile operator. The customer pays the retailer, and the retailer becomes obligated to make settlement to us of the purchased amount of the mobile airtime. We maintain systems that know the amount of mobile top-up sold by the retailer which allows us in turn to bill that retailer for the mobile top-up sold.


Second, we purchase PINs from the mobile operator which are electronically sent to our processing platform. We establish an electronic connection with the POS terminals in retailer locations and our processing platform provides the terminal with a PIN when the mobile top-up is purchased. We maintain systems that monitor transaction levels at each terminal. As sales of prepaid mobile airtime to customers are completed, the inventory on the platform is reduced by the PIN purchased. The customer payment and settlement with the retailer are the same as described above.


We expand our distribution networks by signing new contracts with retailers, and in some markets, by acquiring existing networks. We continue to focus on growing our distribution network through independent sales organizations that contract directly with retailers in their network to distribute prepaid mobile airtime or other digital media content from the retailers' POS terminals. We continue to increase our focus on direct relationships with chains of supermarkets, convenience stores, gas stations, and other larger scale retailers, where we can negotiate multi-year agreements with the retailers. In addition to the sale of traditional mobile top-up volume described above, we have expanded distribution into digital media products and other value-added services. We have leveraged our existing technology infrastructure to sell digital media products, which have been sold through our traditional retail network and new retailer networks such as digital channels. In the U.S., most prepaid digital media content is purchased for gifting; in markets outside the U.S., consumers generally purchase prepaid digital media content for self-use. 


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epay Products and Services


Prepaid Mobile Airtime Transaction Processing


We process prepaid mobile airtime top-up transactions on our international POS network for two types of clients: distributors and retailers. Both types of client transactions start with a consumer in a retail store. The retailer uses a specially programmed POS terminal in the store, the retailer's electronic cash register (ECR) system, or web-based POS device that is connected to our network to buy prepaid mobile airtime. The consumer will select a predefined amount of mobile airtime from the carrier of choice, and the retailer enters the selection into the POS terminal. The consumer will pay that amount to the retailer (in cash or other payment methods accepted by the retailer). The POS device then transmits the selected transaction to our processing center. Using the electronic connection we maintain with the mobile phone operator or drawing from our inventory of PINs, the purchased amount of mobile airtime will be either credited to the consumer's account or delivered via a PIN printed by the terminal and given to the consumer. In the case of PINs printed by the terminal, the consumer must then call the mobile phone operator's toll-free number to activate the purchased airtime to the consumer's mobile account.

 

One difference in our relationships with various retailers and distributors is the way in which we charge for our services. For distributors and certain very large retailers, we charge a processing fee. However, the majority of our transactions occur with smaller retailers. With these clients, we receive a commission or discount on each transaction that is withheld from the payments made to the mobile phone operator, and we share that commission/discount with the retailers.


Closed Loop Gift Cards

 

Closed loop (private-branded) gift cards are generally described as merchant-specific prepaid cards, used for purchases exclusively at a particular merchant's locations. We distribute closed loop gift cards in various categories, including dining, retail, and digital media, such as music, games, and software. Generally, the gift card is activated when a consumer loads funds (with cash, debit or credit card payment) or purchases a preloaded value gift card at a retail store location or online.

 

Open Loop Gift Cards

 

Open loop gift cards are prepaid gift cards associated with an electronic payment network (such as Visa® or Mastercard®) and are honored at multiple, unaffiliated locations (wherever cards from these networks are generally accepted). They are not merchant-specific. We distribute and issue single-use, non-reloadable open loop gift cards carrying the Visa® brand in our retail channels. After the consumer purchases the preloaded value gift card at a retail store location or online, the consumer must call the toll-free number on the back of the card to activate it.

 

Open Loop Reloadable

 

We distribute Visa® and Mastercard® issued debit cards provided by card issuers. We also manage and distribute a proprietary debit card that allows a retailer to issue its own reloadable store-branded card. Open loop reloadable cards have features similar to a bank checking account, including direct deposit, purchasing capability wherever a credit card is accepted, bill payment and ATM access. Fees are charged to consumers for the initial load and reload transactions, monthly account maintenance and other transactions.


Other Products and Services

 

Our POS network is used for the distribution of other products and services, including games and software, bill payment, lottery tickets and transportation products. Through our Cadooz subsidiary, we also distribute vouchers and physical gifts into the business-to-business ("B2B") channel principally for the purposes of employee and customer incentives and rewards, as well as POS promotions where physical goods are sold in large retailers. In certain locations, the terminals used for prepaid services can also be used for electronic funds transfer to process credit, debit, and prepaid card payments for retail merchandise. We provide promotion and advertising for content providers of their prepaid content throughout our retail distribution network. We also provide card production and processing services to some of our prepaid gift card partners and telecom content providers.


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Retailer and Distributor Contracts

We provide our prepaid services through POS terminals or web-based POS devices installed in retail outlets or, in the case of major retailers, through direct connections between their ECR systems and our processing centers. In markets where we operate proprietary technology, we generally own and maintain the POS terminals. In certain countries in Europe, the terminals are sold to the retailers or to distributors who service the retailer. Our agreements with major retailers for POS services typically have one to three-year terms. These agreements include terms regarding the connection of our networks to the respective retailer's registers or payment terminals or the maintenance of POS terminals, and obligations concerning settlement and liability for transactions processed. Generally, our agreements with individual or small retailers have shorter terms and provide that either party can terminate the agreement upon three to six months' notice.

 

The number of transactions processed on our POS networks have increased over the last five years at a CAGR of approximately 25.2% as indicated in the following table:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in millions)

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

epay processing transactions per year

1,542

2,395

3,120

3,836

3,789

 

epay Segment Strategy

 

Mobile top-up transactions are declining in many developed markets and transaction fees for mobile transactions are being compressed by the mobile operators. epay's strategy is to defend margins in developing markets by providing value-added services to mobile operators and to decrease our reliance on mobile top-up by increasing distribution of other electronic content, expanding epay-own branded content, introducing new solutions to new and existing customers, and focusing on geographic expansion. Strategic execution behind expansion of digital media electronic content includes the development of relationships with global consumer product brands. This strategy leverages the global scale of the epay business allowing global brands to be sold in many or all the countries in which we have a presence. Examples of global brands we distribute include iTunes, Google Play, Sony, and Microsoft.


Telecommunications companies and other content providers have a substantial opportunity to increase revenues by diversifying the products and services currently offered to their retailers. epay is deploying additional content through its POS network to retailers and distributors all over the world. The reach, capabilities, and quality of the epay network are appealing as a global distribution channel. We are one of the largest worldwide multi-country operators, and believe we have a distinct competitive advantage with the existing relationships that we maintain with prepaid content providers and retailers.

 

Seasonality

 

As the product mix continues to change, the epay business is impacted by seasonality during the fourth quarter and first quarter of each year due to the higher transaction levels during the holiday season and lower levels following the holiday season.


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Significant Customers and Government Contracts


No individual customer of our epay Segment makes up greater than 10% of total consolidated revenues. epay maintains contract relationships with a number of companies, banks, post offices and telecommunications providers whose ownership includes the government. 

 

Competition

 

We face competition in the prepaid business in all of our markets. We compete with a few multinational companies that operate in several of our markets. In other markets, our competition is from smaller, local companies. The mobile operators in all of our markets have retail distribution networks, and in some markets, on-line distribution of their own through which they offer top-up services for their own products.

 

We believe our size and market share are competitive advantages in many markets. In addition, we believe our processing platforms are a competitive advantage. We have extremely flexible technical platforms that enable us to tailor POS solutions to individual retailers and mobile operator and digital media content provider requirements where appropriate. Our platforms are also able to provide value added services other than processing, which makes us a more valuable partner to the content providers and retailers. We have introduced new digital products into the marketplace such as digital payment for online media subscriptions. Many of these products are not offered by our competitors and in many countries, these are new products. We are capitalizing on being the first to market for these products.

 

The principal competitive factors in the epay Segment include price (that is, the level of commission paid to retailers for each transaction), breadth of products and up-time offered on the system. Major retailers with high volumes can demand a larger share of the commission, which increases the amount of competition among service providers. We are seeing signs that some mobile operators are expanding their distribution networks to provide top-up services on-line or via mobile devices, which provides other alternatives for consumers to use.


Money Transfer Segment


Overview


We provide global money transfer services primarily under the brand names Ria, xe and dandelion. Ria provides consumer-to-consumer money transfer services through a global network of more than 580,000 locations and via our website riamoneytransfer.com. We send money transfers from approximately 136 countries, with money transfer delivery completed in 175 countries. The initiation of a consumer money transfer occurs through retail agents, Company-owned stores or online, while the delivery of money transfers can occur with bank correspondents, retailer agents or from certain ATMs. Our websites, and mobile wallet apps, allow consumers to send funds online, using a bank account or credit or debit card, for pay-out directly to a bank account or for cash pickup.

 

In addition, we provide global account-to-account money transfer services under the brand name xe. We offer money transfer services via our website (www.xe.com) and xe app and through customer service representatives. xe also provides foreign currency exchange information on its currency data websites (www.xe.com and www.x-rates.com). Through xe, we offer cash management solutions and foreign currency risk management services to small-and-medium-sized businesses.


Lastly, under the brand "Dandelion", Ria offers payment processing services to third-party partners. Dandelion is a leading real-time, global cross-border payment platform; it offers consumer and business transaction processing and fulfillment with alternative payout channels like bank accounts, cash pick-up and mobile wallets. Dandelion powers cross-border payments for xe, Ria, as well as third party banks, fintechs, and big tech platforms. 

 

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We monitor the number of transactions made through our money transfer networks. The number of transactions processed on our network has increased over the last five years at a CAGR of approximately 9.0% as indicated in the following table:

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in millions)

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

Money transfer transactions per year

114.5

116.5

135.1

147.9

161.7

 

Our sending agent network includes a variety of agents, including Walmart, large/medium size regional retailers, convenience stores, bodegas, multi-service shops and phone centers, which are predominantly found in areas with a large immigrant population. Each Ria money transfer transaction is processed using Euronet's proprietary software system and checked for security, completeness and compliance with federal and state regulations at every step of the process. Senders can track the progress of their transfers through Ria's customer service representatives, and funds are delivered quickly to their beneficiaries via our extensive payout network, which includes large banks and non-bank financial institutions, post offices and large retailers. 


We are one of the largest global money transfer companies measured by revenues and transaction volumes. Our Money Transfer Segment processed approximately $64.9 billion in money transfers in 2023.


Sources of Revenues

 

Revenues in the Money Transfer Segment are primarily derived through the charging of a transaction fee, as well as a margin earned from purchasing foreign currency at wholesale exchange rates and selling the foreign currency to customers at retail exchange rates. Sending agents and receiving agents for consumer-to-consumer products each earn fees for cash collection and distribution services. Euronet recognizes these fees as direct operating costs at the time of sale.


Money Transfer Products and Services

 

Money transfer products and services are sold primarily through the following channels: at agent locations, Company-owned stores, mobile apps, TeleRia phone, and on internet enabled devices at riamoneytransfer.com and xe.com. In an online transaction, customers send funds, using a bank account or credit or debit card, for pay-out at most of our agent locations around the world or directly to a bank account.


In addition to money transfers, Ria also offers customers bill payment services, payment alternatives such as money orders, comprehensive check cashing services for a wide variety of issued checks, along with competitive foreign currency exchange services and mobile top-up. Our bill payment services offer timely posting of customer bills for over 8,800 companies, including electric and gas utilities and telephone/wireless companies. These services are all offered through our Company-owned stores while select services are offered through our agents in certain markets.


Under the brand "Dandelion", Ria offers payment processing services to third party partners. The Dandelion cross-border payments platform provides financial institutions, fintechs such as digital wallets and banks, and enterprise software companies access to Euronet's money transfer network through an API connection. This enables these companies to build financial solutions with real-time payment capabilities to the more than 550,000 cash locations, and more than 6 billion bank and digital wallet accounts the Euronet money transfer network reaches.

 

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xe offers an account-to-account international payment service to high-income individuals and small-and-medium sized businesses, complementing our existing consumer-to-consumer money transfer business. xe has a multi-channel platform which allows customers to make transfers, track payments and manage their international payment activity online or through a customer service representative. xe offers cash management solutions and foreign currency risk management services to small-and-medium sized businesses. xe also offers foreign currency exchange subscriptions and advertising on its websites.


Money Transfer Segment Strategy

 

The Money Transfer Segment's strategy is to increase the volume of money transfers processed by leveraging our existing banking and merchant/retailer relationships to expand our agent and correspondent networks in existing corridors. In addition, we pursue expansion into high-potential money transfer corridors from the U.S. and internationally beyond the traditional U.S. to Mexico corridor. Further, we expect to continue to take advantage of cross-selling opportunities with our epay and EFT Processing Segments by providing prepaid services through our stores and agents and offering our money transfer services at select prepaid retail locations and ATMs we operate in key markets. We will continue to make investments in our systems to support this growth. Additionally, we are expanding our xe business into new markets.

 

Seasonality

 

Our money transfer business is significantly impacted by seasonality that varies by region. In most of our markets, we experience increased money transfer transaction levels during the month of May and in the fourth quarter of each year, coinciding with various holidays. Additionally, in the U.S. to Mexico corridor, we usually experience our heaviest volume during the May through October time frame, coinciding with the increase in worker migration patterns and various holidays, and our lowest volumes during the first quarter.

 

Significant Customers and Government Contracts

 

No individual customer of our Money Transfer Segment makes up greater than 10% of total consolidated revenues. The Money Transfer Segment maintains correspondent relationships with a number of financial institutions whose ownership includes governments of the correspondents' countries of origin.


Competition

 

Our primary competitors in the money transfer and bill payment business include other large money transfer companies and electronic money transmitters, together with hundreds of smaller registered and unregistered money transmitters, as well as certain major national and regional banks, financial institutions, and independent sales organizations. Our competition includes The Western Union Company, the leading competitor with revenue approximately two times greater than our revenue. The Western Union Company has a significant competitive advantage due to its greater resources and access to capital for expansion. This may allow them to offer better pricing terms to customers, agents, or correspondents, which may result in a loss of our current or potential customers or could force us to lower our prices. In addition to traditional money payment services, new technologies are emerging that compete with traditional money payment services, such as stored-value cards, debit networks, web-based services, mobile apps, and digital currencies. Our continued growth also depends upon our ability to compete effectively with these alternative technologies.


Employees

 

We had approximately 10,000, 9,500 and 8,800 employees as of December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. We believe our future success will depend in part on our ability to continue to recruit, retain and motivate qualified management, technical and administrative employees. Currently, no union represents any of our employees, except in one of our Spanish subsidiaries. We experienced no work stoppages or strikes by our workforce in 2023 and we consider relations with our employees to be good.


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Government Regulation

 

As discussed below, many of our business activities are subject to regulation in our current markets. In the Money Transfer Segment, we are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations of the U.S., individual U.S. states and foreign governments. These include international, federal, and state anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations, money transfer and payment instrument licensing laws, escheat laws, laws covering consumer privacy, data protection and information security and consumer disclosure and consumer protection laws. Our operations have also been subject to increasingly strict requirements intended to help prevent and detect a variety of illegal financial activity, including money laundering, terrorist financing, unauthorized access to personal customer data and other illegal activities. The more significant of these laws and regulations are discussed below. Noncompliance with these laws and requirements could result in the loss or suspension of licenses or registrations required to provide money transfer services through retail agents, Company owned stores, mobile apps or online. For more discussion, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.   

 

Any further expansion of our activity into areas that are qualified as "financial activity" under local legislation may subject us to licensing and we may be required to comply with various conditions to obtain such licenses. Moreover, the interpretations of bank regulatory authorities as to the activity we currently conduct might change in the future. We monitor our business for compliance with applicable laws or regulations regarding financial activities.

 

Certain of our European product offerings, including in particular, our money transfer services, merchant acquiring and bill payment products, are regulated payment services requiring a license under the Second Payment Services Directive, or PSD2.

 

PSD2 requires a license to perform certain defined "payment services" in a European Economic Area (“EEA”) Member State and such license may be extended throughout other Member States of the EEA through passporting of the license (either on a freedom of service or freedom of establishment basis). Conditions for obtaining the license include minimum capital requirements, establishment of procedures for safeguarding of funds, and certain governance and reporting requirements. In addition, certain obligations relating to internal controls and the conduct of business, in particular, consumer disclosure requirements and certain rules regarding the timing and settlement of payments, must be met. We have payment institution licenses in the U.K., France, Germany, and Spain and are complying with these requirements. We passported our U.K., German, and Spanish payment services authorizations to several EEA Member States. As a result of Brexit, our U.K, payment institution is no longer capable of passporting its license into the EEA and the relevant EEA business was transferred to our other licenses prior to the end of the Brexit transition period. Additionally, in the U.K., we have obtained an e-money license. The e-money license allows Euronet to issue e-money and provide the same payment services as a PSD2 licensee.  The e-money license imposes certain requirements similar to those of the payment services license, including minimum capital requirements, consumer disclosure and internal controls. 

 

Money Transfer and Payment Instrument Licensing

 

Licensing requirements in the U.S. are generally driven by the various state banking departments regulating the businesses of money transfers and issuances of payment instruments. Typical requirements include the meeting of minimum net worth requirements, maintaining permissible investments (e.g., cash, agent receivables, and government-backed securities) at levels commensurate with outstanding payment obligations and the filing of a security instrument (typically in the form of a surety bond) to offset the risk of default of trustee obligations by the license holder. We are required by many state regulators to submit ongoing reports of licensed activity, most often on a quarterly or monthly basis, that address changes to agent and branch locations, operating and financial performance, permissible investments, and outstanding transmission liabilities. These periodic reports are utilized by the regulator to monitor ongoing compliance with state licensing laws. A number of major state regulators also conduct periodic examinations of license holders and their authorized delegates, generally with a frequency of every one to two years. Examinations are most often comprehensive in nature, addressing both the safety and soundness and overall compliance by the license holder with regard to state and federal regulations. Such examinations are typically performed on-site at the license holder's headquarters or operations center; however, certain states may choose to perform examinations off-site as well.

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Money transmitters, issuers of payment instruments and their agents are required to comply with U.S. federal, state and/or foreign anti-money laundering laws and regulations. In summary, our Money Transfer Segment, as well as our agent network, is subject to regulations issued by the different state and foreign national regulators who license us, the Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"), the Bank Secrecy Act as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act ("BSA"), the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network ("FINCEN"), as well as any existing or future regulations that impact any aspect of our money transfer business.

A similar set of regulations applies to our money transfer businesses in most of the foreign countries in which we originate transactions. These laws and regulations include monetary limits for money transfers into or out of a country, rules regarding the foreign currency exchange rates offered, as well as other limitations or rules for which we must maintain compliance.

Regulatory bodies in the U.S. and abroad may impose additional rules on the conduct of our Money Transfer Segment that could have a significant impact on our operations and our agent network. In this regard, the U.S. federal government has implemented U.S. federal regulations for electronic money transfers, including the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, which provides consumer protections for international remittance transfers. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), adopted a rule that provides additional protections for consumers who transmit money internationally, including disclosure requirements, cancellation rights and error resolution procedures for consumer complaints. Under U.S. federal law, it is unlawful for any provider of consumer financial products or services to engage in unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices (collectively, "UDAAPs"). The CFPB has rule making and enforcement authority to prevent UDAAPs in connection with transactions for consumer financial products or services. The CFPB audits our compliance with these rules, and we may be subject to fines or penalties for violations of any of such rules.

Escheat Regulations

Our Money Transfer Segment is subject to the unclaimed or abandoned property (i.e., "escheat") regulations of the United States and certain foreign countries in which we operate. These laws require us to turn over property held by Euronet on behalf of others remaining unclaimed after specified periods of time (i.e., "dormancy" or "escheat" periods). Such abandoned property is generally attributable to the failure of beneficiary parties to claim money transfers or the failure to negotiate money orders, a form of payment instrument. We have policies and programs in place to help us monitor the required information relating to each money transfer or payment instrument for possible eventual reporting to the jurisdiction from which the order was originally received. In the U.S., reporting of unclaimed property by money service companies is performed annually, generally with a due date of on or before November 1. State banking department regulators will typically include a review of Euronet escheat procedures and related filings as part of their examination protocol.

Privacy and Information Security Regulations

Our operations involve the collection and storage of certain types of personal customer data that are subject to privacy and security laws in the U.S. and abroad. In the United States, we are subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act ("GLBA") and various state laws including California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), which require that financial institutions have in place policies regarding the collection, processing, storage, and disclosure of information considered nonpublic personal information. Laws in other countries include the E.U.'s General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679) ("GDPR"), as well as the laws of other countries. The GDPR establishes stringent requirements for the collection and processing of personal information of individuals within the E.U. The GDPR establishes certain rights of individuals regarding personal information processed by companies as well as requirements for information security and imposes significant fines that may be revenue-based for violation of its requirements. Any failure on our part to meet the requirements of the GDPR could result in the imposition of fines and penalties that could affect our financial results.

We comply with the GLBA and applicable state privacy provisions. In July 2020, the European Court of Justice invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield as a lawful mechanism for transferring personal data to the US as a result of concerns related to surveillance by law enforcement agencies and a lack of judicial redress by individuals in the EU (known as the "Schrems II" decision). Despite the July 2020 ruling of the European Court of Justice, we believe we remain in compliance with E.U. regulations regarding the transfer of personal data to the United States and other jurisdictions.

Recently, as identity theft has been on the rise, there has been increased public attention to concerns about information security and consumer privacy, accompanied by laws and regulations addressing the issue. We believe we are compliant with these laws and regulations; however, this is a rapidly evolving area and there can be no assurance that we will continue to meet the existing and new regulations, which could have a material, adverse impact on our Money Transfer Segment business.

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Anti-corruption and Bribery

We are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), which prohibits U.S. and other business entities from making improper payments to foreign government officials, political parties, or political party officials. We are also subject to the applicable anti-corruption laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, such as the U.K. Bribery Act, thus potentially exposing us to liability and potential penalties in multiple jurisdictions. The anti-corruption provisions of the FCPA are enforced by the United States Department of Justice. In addition, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") requires strict compliance with certain accounting and internal control standards set forth under the FCPA. Because our services are offered in many countries throughout the world and we do business with a number of banks and other financial institutions owned or controlled by foreign governments, we face a higher risk associated with FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other similar laws than many other companies and we have policies and procedures in place to address compliance with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other similar laws. Any determination that we have violated these laws could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position, and results of operations. Failure to comply with our policies and procedures or the FCPA and other laws can expose Euronet and/or individual employees to potentially severe criminal and civil penalties. Such penalties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.


Sanctions Compliance


In addition to anti-money laundering laws and regulations, our products and services are subject to economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations promulgated by OFAC and other jurisdictions in which our products and services are offered.  The sanctions laws and regulations prohibit or restrict transactions to or from (or dealings with or involving) certain countries, regions, governments, and in certain circumstances, specified foreign nationals, as well as with certain individuals and entities such as narcotics traffickers, terrorists, and terrorist organizations. These sanctions laws and regulations require screening of transactions against government watch-lists, including but not limited to, the watch-lists maintained by OFAC, and include transactional and other reporting to government agencies.


Compliance Policies and Programs

 

We have developed risk-based policies and programs to comply with existing and new laws, regulations and other requirements outlined above, including having dedicated compliance personnel, training programs, automated monitoring systems and support functions for our offices and agents. To assist in managing and monitoring our money laundering and terrorist financing risks, we continue to have our compliance programs, in many countries, independently examined on an annual basis. In addition, we continue to enhance our anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing compliance policy, procedures and monitoring systems, as well as our consumer protection policies and procedures.


Intellectual Property

 

Each of our three operating segments utilizes intellectual property which is protected in varying degrees by a combination of trademark, patent, and copyright laws, as well as trade secret protection, license, and confidentiality agreements.

 

The brand names of "Ria," "Ria Financial Services," "Ria Envia," "xe," "Dandelion," derivations of those brand names and certain other brand names, and related logs, are material to our Money Transfer Segment and are registered trademarks and/or service marks in most of the markets in which our Money Transfer Segment operates. Consumer perception of these brand names and logos is important to the growth prospects of our money transfer business. We also hold a U.S. patent on a card-based money transfer and bill payment system that allows transactions to be initiated primarily through POS terminals and integrated cash register systems.

 

With respect to our EFT Processing Segment, we have registered or applied for registration of our trademarks, including the names "Euronet" and/or our related logo, as well as other trade names in most markets in which these trademarks are used. Certain trademark authorities have notified us that they consider these trademarks to be generic and, therefore, not protected by trademark laws. This determination does not affect our ability to use the Euronet trademark in those markets, but it would prevent us from stopping other parties from using it in competition with Euronet. We have registered the "Euronet" trademark in the class of ATM machines in Germany, the U.K., and certain other Western European countries. We have filed pending applications and/or obtained patents for a number of our new software products and our processing technology, including certain top-up services and DCC services.


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With respect to our epay Segment, we maintain registered trademarks for the "epay" brand and logo in the U.S., U.K., E.U. (through a Community Trademark application, which provides enforceability of the epay trademark in all member states of the EU), Brazil, Singapore, India, Australia, and New Zealand. We have filed trademark applications for additional iterations of the "epay” brand in India, which are pending.


Additionally, we have filed a trademark application for the “epay” brand with the Madrid Protocol, which, if granted, will simplify the process to extending the international protection of the epay trademark. We cannot be certain that we are entitled to use the epay trademark in any markets other than those in which we have registered the trademark; however, before entering new markets, we conduct searches to understand our usage rights. We have filed patent applications for certain POS top-up and other epay technology. Certain patents have been granted while others have been refused or are still pending. We also hold a patent license covering certain of epay's operations in the U.S.

 

Technology in the areas in which we operate is developing very rapidly, and we are aware that many other companies have filed patent applications for products, processes, and services similar to those we provide. The procedures of the U.S. patent office make it difficult for us to predict whether our patent applications will be approved or will be granted priority dates that are earlier than other patents that have been filed for similar products or services. Moreover, many "process patents" have been filed in the U.S. over recent years covering processes that are in wide use in the money transfer, EFT, and prepaid processing industries. If any of these patents are considered to cover technology that has been incorporated into our systems, we may be required to obtain additional licenses and pay royalties to the holders of such patents to continue to use the affected technology or be prohibited from continuing the offering of such services if licenses are not obtained. This could materially and adversely affect our business.


Information about our Executive Officers

 

The name, age, period of service and position held by each of our Executive Officers as of February 22, 2024 are as follows:

 

 

 

 

Name

Age

Served Since

Position Held

Michael J. Brown

67

July 1994

Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President

Rick L. Weller

66

November 2002

Executive Vice President - Chief Financial Officer

Scott D. Claassen

57

May 2020

General Counsel and Secretary

Kevin J. Caponecchi

57

July 2007

Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, epay, Software and EFT Asia Pacific Division

Juan C. Bianchi

53

April 2007

Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, Money Transfer Segment

Nikos Fountas

60

September 2009

Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, EFT Europe, Middle East and Africa Division

Martin L. Bruckner

48

January 2014

Senior Vice President - Chief Technology Officer

 

MICHAEL J. BROWN, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President. Mr. Brown co-founded Euronet in 1994 and has served as its chief executive officer ever since. He is chairman of Euronet’s board of directors and the Company’s President. An accomplished entrepreneur with 30+ years of combined experience in the computer software and digital payments business, he is actively involved in Euronet's day-to-day operations while overseeing the company’s business strategy, financial performance, and growth across all markets.  Mr. Brown’s guidance has been instrumental in developing Euronet’s global cash/digital payments network and diverse products and services that provide Euronet with resiliency to changing market conditions and continual year-over-year growth in the global payments marketplace. Following early successes in his career with Kansas City-area companies Informix and Visual Tools, Mr. Brown founded Euronet in 1994 in Budapest, Hungary, by installing the first independent, non-bank-owned ATM network in Central Europe. Guiding the company through several strategic acquisitions and technology endeavors since then, Mr. Brown has grown Euronet to approximately 10,000 employees and 67 offices worldwide. He has also brought financial inclusion and convenience to businesses and consumers through a payments network spanning 200 countries and territories. A lifelong Kansas Citian, Mr. Brown is an active supporter and past and present board member of many Kansas City-area charities.

 

RICK L. WELLER, Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Weller has been Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Euronet since he joined Euronet in November 2002. From January 2002 to October 2002, he was the sole proprietor of Pivotal Associates, a business development firm. From November 1999 to December 2001, Mr. Weller held the position of Chief Operating Officer of ionex telecommunications, inc., a local exchange company. He is a certified public accountant and received his B.S. in Accounting from the University of Central Missouri.


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SCOTT D. CLAASSEN, General Counsel and Secretary. Mr. Claassen has been General Counsel and Secretary of Euronet since joining the Company in May 2020. Prior to this, he practiced corporate law with Stinson LLP and Shook, Hardy and Bacon LLP.  He is a member of the Kansas and Missouri bars. He received a B.S. in Agriculture from Kansas State University, an MBA from the University of Kansas and a law degree from Harvard Law School.


KEVIN J. CAPONECCHI, Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer, epay, Software and EFT Asia Pacific Division. Mr. Caponecchi joined Euronet in July 2007 and served as President until assuming his current role in December 2014. Prior to joining Euronet, Mr. Caponecchi served in various capacities with subsidiaries of General Electric Company for 17 years. From 2003 until June 2007, Mr. Caponecchi served as President of GE Global Signaling, a provider of products and services to freight, passenger and mass transit systems. From 1998 through 2002, Mr. Caponecchi served as General Manager - Technology for GE Consumer & Industrial, a provider of consumer appliances, lighting products and electrical products. Mr. Caponecchi holds degrees in physics from Franklin and Marshall College and industrial engineering from Columbia University.


JUAN C. BIANCHI, Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, Money Transfer Segment. Mr. Bianchi joined Euronet subsequent to the acquisition of Ria in 2007. Prior to the acquisition, Mr. Bianchi served as the Chief Executive Officer of Ria and has spent his entire career at either Ria or AFEX Money Express, a money transfer company purchased by Ria's founders. Mr. Bianchi began his career at AFEX in Chile in 1992, joined AFEX USA's operations in 1996, and became chief operating officer of AFEX-Ria in 2003. Mr. Bianchi studied business at the Universidad Andres Bello in Chile and completed the Executive Program in Management at UCLA's John E. Anderson School of Business.


NIKOS FOUNTAS, Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, EFT Europe, Middle East and Africa Division. Mr. Fountas has been Executive Vice President of the Company's EFT Processing Segment in Europe since December 2012. Mr. Fountas joined Euronet subsequent to the Company's 2005 acquisition of Instreamline S.A. (now Euronet Card Services) in Greece. He served as managing director of the Company's Greece EFT subsidiary, responsible for Euronet's European card processing and cross-border acquiring operations until September 2009. In September 2009, Mr. Fountas took over responsibilities as managing director of Euronet's Europe EFT Processing Segment. Prior to joining Euronet, Mr. Fountas spent over 20 years working in management and executive-level positions in the IT field for several companies, including IBM for 12 years. He has a degree in computer science (Honors) from York University in Canada and post graduate studies in business administration from Henley Management School and IBM Business Professional Institute.

 

MARTIN L. BRUCKNER, Senior Vice President - Chief Technology Officer. Mr. Bruckner has been Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Euronet since January 2014. Mr. Bruckner joined Euronet in 2007 as head of software development and IT operations for Transact GmbH. In 2009, he was promoted to Chief Technology Officer of Euronet's epay segment. Prior to joining Euronet, Mr. Bruckner established his own IT company called MLB Development GmbH, where he developed software systems for various European companies. Mr. Bruckner has more than 20 years of software development experience and published his first software product (BBS systems) at the age of 15. He received a Doctorate of Law from the University of Rostock and a law degree from the University of Bielefeld.


Availability of Reports, Certain Committee Charters, and Other Information

 

Our website addresses are www.euronetworldwide.com and www.eeft.com. We make available all SEC public filings, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act") on our websites free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after these documents are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information on our websites is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC. In addition, our SEC filings are made available via the SEC's EDGAR filing system accessible at www.sec.gov.


The charters for our Audit, Compensation, and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committees, as well as the Code of Business Conduct & Ethics for our employees, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, are available on our website at www.euronetworldwide.com in the "For Investors" section under "Corporate Governance / Documents and Charters".


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Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

Our operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those described below. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. The risks and uncertainties described below are not necessarily organized in order of priority or probability.

 

If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our Common Stock could decline substantially.

 

This Annual Report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including the risks described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report. 


GOVERNMENT AND REGULATION


Because we are a multinational company conducting complex business in many markets worldwide, we are subject to legal and operational risks related to a broad array of local legal and regulatory requirements which could adversely affect our operations.


Operating outside of the U.S. creates difficulties associated with our international operations, as well as complying with local legal and regulatory requirements. We operate financial transaction processing networks that offer new products and services to customers, and the laws and regulations in the markets in which we operate evolve and are subject to rapid change. Although we have knowledgeable local staff in countries in which we deem it appropriate, we cannot assure you that we will continue to be found to be operating in compliance with all applicable customs, currency exchange control, data protection, anti-money laundering, sanctions, employment, transfer pricing and other laws or regulations to which we may be subject. We also cannot assure you that these laws will not be modified in ways that may adversely affect our business.


For our epay Segment, as we continue to expand our electronic payment product and service offerings, certain of those products and/or services may become regulated by state, federal or foreign laws, rules and regulations. New payment product and/or service offerings may trigger payment regulation within the jurisdiction in which we are offering such payment products and services which may require licensure for epay and/or our partner entities distributing or processing such products. If such products become more highly regulated and ultimately require licensure, our epay business may be adversely affected. Further, if regulations regarding the expiration of gift vouchers change in the countries where we offer them, the revenue epay recognizes from unredeemed vouchers may be negatively affected.


Our money transfer services are subject to regulation by the U.S. states in which we operate, by the U.S. federal government and the governments of the other countries in which we operate. Changes in the laws, rules and regulations of these governmental entities, and our ability to obtain or retain required licensure, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flow.


Additionally, the evolving regulatory environment may change the competitive landscape across various jurisdictions and adversely affect our financial results. If governments implement new laws or regulations, or organizations such as Visa® and Mastercard® issue new rules, that effectively limit our ability to provide DCC or set fees and/or foreign currency exchange spreads, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, changes in regulatory interpretations or practices could increase the risk of regulatory enforcement actions, fines and penalties and such changes may be replicated across multiple jurisdictions.


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We conduct a significant portion of our business in Central and Eastern European countries, and we have subsidiaries in the Middle East, Asia Pacific, Africa and South America, where the risk of continued political, economic and regulatory change that could impact our operating results is greater than in the U.S. or Western Europe.


We have subsidiaries in Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia Pacific, Africa, and South America. We expect to continue to expand our operations to other countries in these regions. Some of these countries have undergone significant political, economic and social change in recent years and the risk of new, unforeseen changes in these countries remains greater than in the U.S. or Western Europe. Recent changes to the political climate in certain Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries increase the risk that a potential military conflict may adversely impact our operations in that region and disrupt our ATM network. In particular, changes in laws or regulations or in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations, whether caused by a change in government or otherwise, could materially adversely affect our business, growth, financial condition or results of operations.


For example, currently there are no limitations in any of the countries in which we have subsidiaries on the repatriation of profits from these countries, but foreign currency exchange control restrictions, taxes or limitations may be imposed or tightened in the future with regard to repatriation of earnings and investments from these countries. If exchange control restrictions, taxes or limitations are imposed or tightened, our ability to receive dividends or other payments from affected subsidiaries could be reduced, which may have a material adverse effect on us. As discussed under "Liquidity and Capital Resources" in Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, under existing U.S. tax laws, repatriation of certain assets to the U.S. could have adverse tax consequences.


In addition, corporate, contract, property, insolvency, competition, securities and other laws and regulations in many of the countries in which we operate have been, and continue to be, substantially revised. Therefore, the interpretation and procedural safeguards of the new legal and regulatory systems are in the process of being developed and defined, and existing laws and regulations may be applied inconsistently. Also, in some circumstances, it may not be possible to obtain the legal remedies provided for under these laws and regulations in a reasonably timely manner, if at all.


We conduct business in many international markets with complex and evolving tax rules, including value added tax rules, which subject us to international tax compliance risks which could adversely affect our operating results.

 

While we obtain advice from legal and tax advisors as necessary to help assure compliance with tax and regulatory matters, most tax jurisdictions that we operate in have complex and subjective rules regarding the valuation of intercompany services, cross-border payments between affiliated companies and the related effects on income tax, value added tax (“VAT”), transfer tax and share registration tax. Our foreign subsidiaries frequently undergo VAT reviews, and from time to time undergo comprehensive tax reviews and may be required to make additional tax payments should the review result in different interpretations, allocations or valuations of our products and services.


Additionally, as a result of economic downturns, tax receipts have decreased and/or government spending has increased in many of the countries in which we operate. Consequently, governments may increase tax rates or implement new taxes in order to compensate for gaps between tax revenues and expenditures. Governments may prohibit or restrict the use of certain legal structures designed to minimize taxes. Any such tax increases, whether borne by us or our customers, could negatively impact our operating results or the demand for our products and services.


The European Union ("EU") member states formally adopted the EU's Pillar Two Directive, which was established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and which generally provides for a 15 percent minimum effective tax rate for multinational enterprises, in every jurisdiction in which they operate. While we do not anticipate that the Pillar Two Directive will have a material impact on our tax provision or effective tax rate, we continue to monitor evolving tax legislation in the jurisdictions in which we operate.


We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other similar anti-corruption laws.


Our operations in countries outside the United States are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the FCPA. The FCPA and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions, such as the U.K. Bribery Act, generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or employees of commercial enterprises for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-corruption laws may conflict with local customs and practices.


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Our employees and agents interact with government officials on our behalf, including as necessary to obtain licenses and other regulatory approvals necessary to operate our business, import or export equipment, employ expatriates, and resolve tax disputes. We also have a number of contracts with foreign governments or entities owned or controlled by foreign governments. These interactions and contracts create a risk of violation of the FCPA or other similar laws.

Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with local laws and regulations as well as U.S. laws and regulations, including the FCPA, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, consultants, contractors and agents will abide by our policies. If we are found to be liable for violations of the FCPA or similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions, either due to our own or others' acts or inadvertence, we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. 

Our operating results in the money transfer business may be harmed if there are adverse changes in worker immigration patterns, our ability to expand our share of the existing electronic market and to expand into new markets and our ability to continue complying with regulations issued by the OFAC, BSA, FINCEN, USA PATRIOT Act regulations, the Dodd-Frank Act or any other existing or future regulations that impact any aspect of our money transfer business.

Our money transfer business primarily focuses on workers who migrate to foreign countries in search of employment and then send a portion of their earnings to family members in their home countries. Changes in U.S. and foreign government policies or enforcement, including changes that have been, or may be, implemented by the U.S. President or Congress, toward immigration may have a negative effect on immigration in the U.S. and other countries, which could also have an adverse impact on our money transfer revenues.

Both U.S. and foreign regulators have become increasingly aggressive in the enforcement of the various regulatory regimes applicable to our businesses and the imposition of fines and penalties in the event of violations. Our ability to continue complying with the requirements of OFAC, BSA, FINCEN, the USA PATRIOT Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, and other regulations (both U.S. and foreign) is important to our success in achieving growth and an inability to do this could have an adverse impact on our revenues and earnings. Anti-money laundering, sanctions, and consumer protection regulations require us to be responsible for the compliance by agents with such regulations. Although we have training and compliance programs in place, we cannot be certain our agents will comply with such regulations and we may be held responsible for their failure to comply, resulting in fines and penalties. Future growth and profitability depend upon expansion within the markets in which we currently operate and the development of new markets for our money transfer services. Our expansion into new markets is dependent upon our ability to successfully apply our existing technology or to develop new applications to satisfy market demand. We may not have adequate financial and technological resources to expand our distribution channels and product applications to satisfy these demands, which may have an adverse impact on our ability to achieve the expected growth in revenues and earnings. 

Expectations relating to environmental, social and governance considerations and related reporting obligations expose us to potential liabilities, increased costs, reputational harm, and other adverse effects on our business.

 

Many governments, regulators, investors, employees, customers, and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on environmental, social and governance considerations relating to businesses, including climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, human and civil rights, and diversity, equity and inclusion. In addition, we make statements about our goals and initiatives through our various non-financial reports, information provided on our website, press statements and other communications. Responding to these environmental, social and governance considerations and implementation of these goals and initiatives involves risks and uncertainties, requires investments, and depends in part on third-party performance or data that is outside our control. We cannot guarantee that we will achieve our environmental, social and governance goals and initiatives. In addition, some stakeholders may disagree with our goals and initiatives. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to achieve our goals, further our initiatives, adhere to our public statements, comply with federal, state, or international environmental, social and governance laws and regulations, or meet evolving and varied stakeholder expectations and standards could result in legal and regulatory proceedings against us and materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition and stock price.


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Our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings or government investigations.

 

We are subject to various claims, legal proceedings and government investigations that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and have not yet been fully resolved, and new matters may arise in the future. In addition, agreements entered into by us sometimes include indemnification provisions which can subject us to costs and damages in the event of a claim against an indemnified third party. The number of claims, legal proceedings and government investigations involving us, and the alleged magnitude of such claims, proceedings, and government investigations, has generally increased over time and may continue to increase. In recognition of these considerations, we may enter into agreements or other arrangements to settle litigation and resolve such challenges. There can be no assurance such agreements can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These agreements can also significantly increase our cost of sales and operating expenses and require us to change its business practices and limit our ability to offer certain products and services. The outcome of litigation or government investigations is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against us or an indemnified third party in a reporting period for amounts above management’s expectations, our results of operations and financial condition for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. Further, such an outcome can result in significant compensatory, punitive or trebled monetary damages, disgorgement of revenue or profits, remedial corporate measures or injunctive relief against us, and has from time to time required, and can in the future require, us to change our business practices and limit our ability to offer certain products and services, all of which could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. While we maintain insurance coverage for certain types of claims, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.



SUPPLY CHAIN AND THIRD PARTIES

Because we typically enter into short-term contracts with content providers and retailers, our epay business is subject to the risk of non-renewal of those contracts, or renewal under less favorable terms.

Our contracts with content providers to distribute and process content, including prepaid mobile airtime top-up services, typically have terms of less than three years. Our contracts with content providers are not exclusive, so these providers may enter into contracts with other service providers. In addition, our service contracts with major retailers typically have terms of one to three years. The cancellation or non-renewal of one or more of our significant content provider or retail contracts, or of a large enough group of our contracts with smaller retailers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The renewal of contracts under less favorable payment terms, margins or other terms could have a material adverse impact on our working capital requirements and/or results from operations. In addition, our contracts generally permit content providers to reduce our margin or commission at any time. Commission and margin revenue or fee reductions by any of the content providers could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Our epay business is focused on expanding and differentiating its suite of prepaid digital product offerings on a global basis, there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into relationships on favorable terms with additional content providers or renew or expand current relationships and contracts on favorable terms. The inability to continue to grow our suite of electronic content and electronic payment product offerings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. 

21


The stability and growth of our EFT Processing Segment may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain our current card acceptance and ATM management agreements with banks and international card organizations, and to secure new arrangements for card acceptance and ATM management.
The stability and future growth of our EFT Processing Segment depends in part on our ability to sign card acceptance and ATM management agreements with banks and international card organizations. Card acceptance agreements allow our ATMs to accept credit and debit cards issued by banks and international card organizations. ATM management agreements generate service income from our management of ATMs for banks.
These agreements have expiration dates, and banks and international card organizations are generally not obligated to renew them. Our existing contracts generally have terms of five to seven years and a number of them expire or are up for renewal each year. In some cases, banks may terminate their contracts prior to the expiration of their terms. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to sign or maintain these agreements on terms and conditions acceptable to us or that international card organizations will continue to permit our ATMs to accept their credit and debit cards. The inability to continue to sign or maintain these agreements, or to continue to accept the credit and debit cards of local banks and international card organizations at our ATMs in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our business, growth, financial condition, or results of operations.
In some cases, we are dependent upon international card organizations and national transaction processing switches to provide assistance in obtaining settlement from card issuers of funds relating to transactions on our ATMs, and any failure by them to provide the required cooperation could result in our inability to obtain settlement of funds relating to transactions.
Our ATMs dispense cash relating to transactions on credit and debit cards issued by banks. We have in place arrangements for the settlement to us of all of those transactions, but in some cases, we do not have a direct relationship with the card-issuing bank and rely for settlement on the application of rules that are administered by international card associations (such as Visa® or Mastercard®) or national transaction processing switching networks. If a bankcard issuer fails to settle transactions in accordance with those rules, we are dependent upon cooperation from such associations or switching networks to enforce our right of settlement against such associations. Failure by such organizations or switches to provide the required cooperation could result in our inability to obtain a settlement of funds relating to transactions and adversely affect our business. Moreover, international card associations and issuers of their cards (and, in the case of Visa, member banks) have the ability to change or apply their rules in ways that could negatively impact our business. As an example, DCC is not permitted on certain cards in certain geographic territories, and the scope of such restrictions could be extended. Any such change or application of the rules of international card associations could materially and adversely affect our business.
We could incur substantial losses if one of the third-party depository institutions or financial institutions we use in our operations were to fail.
As part of our business operations, we maintain cash balances at third party depository institutions. We could incur substantial losses if a financial institution in which we have significant deposits fails.
Our money transfer business involves transferring funds internationally and is dependent upon foreign and domestic financial institutions, including our competitors, to execute funds transfers and foreign currency transactions. Changes to existing regulations of financial institution operations, such as those designed to combat terrorism or money laundering, could require us to alter our operating procedures in a manner that increases our cost of doing business or to terminate certain product offerings. In addition, as a result of existing regulations and/or changes to those regulations, financial institutions could decide to cease providing the services on which we depend, requiring us to terminate certain product offerings.
We are required under certain national laws and the rules of financial transaction switching networks in many of our markets to have sponsors to operate ATMs and switch ATM transactions. Our failure to secure sponsor arrangements in any of our markets that require bank sponsors could prevent us from doing business in that market.
Under the laws of some countries, only a licensed financial institution may operate ATMs. Because we are not a licensed financial institution outside of the E.U. we are required to have a sponsor bank to conduct ATM operations in those countries. In addition, in all of our non-E.U. markets, the rules governing national transaction switching networks owned or operated by banks, and other international financial transaction switching networks operated by organizations such as Citibank, Visa® and Mastercard®, require any company sending transactions through these switches to be a bank or a technical service processor that is approved and monitored by a bank. As a result, the operation of our ATM network in many of our markets depends on our ability to secure these sponsor arrangements with financial institutions.
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To date, we have been successful in reaching contractual arrangements that have permitted us to operate in all of our target markets. However, we cannot assure you that we will continue to be successful in reaching these arrangements, and it is possible that our current arrangements will not continue to be renewed. If we are unable to secure sponsor arrangements in any market, we could be prevented from doing business in that market.

We rely on third party financial institutions to provide us with a portion of the cash required to operate our ATM networks in certain countries. If these institutions were unable or unwilling to provide us with the cash necessary to operate our ATM networks, we would be required to locate additional alternative sources of cash to operate these networks.

In our EFT Processing Segment, we primarily rely on third party financial institutions in certain countries in Europe and Asia Pacific to provide us with the cash required to operate our ATM networks. Under our agreements with these providers, we pay fees or interest, which is generally variable and could increase, based on the total amount of cash we are using from such provider at a given time, as well as other costs such as bank fees and cash transportation costs. As of December 31, 2023, the amount of cash used in our ATM networks under these supply agreements was approximately $576.2 million. Before the cash is disbursed to ATM customers, beneficial ownership of the cash is generally retained by the cash providers, and we have no access or proprietary rights to the cash.

Our existing agreements with cash providers are generally multi-year agreements that expire at various times. However, each provider may have the right to demand the return of all or any portion of its cash at any time upon the occurrence of certain events beyond our control, including certain bankruptcy events affecting us or our subsidiaries, or a breach of the terms of our cash provider agreements.

If any of our cash supply providers were to demand return of their cash or terminate their agreements with us and remove their cash from our ATM devices, or if they fail to provide us with the cash our operations require, our ability to operate the ATM networks to which the provider supplies cash would be jeopardized, and we would need to locate additional alternative sources of cash, including, potentially the increased use of our own cash. Under those circumstances, the terms and conditions of the new or renewed agreements could potentially be less favorable to us, which would negatively impact our results of operations. Furthermore, restrictions on our access to cash to supply our ATMs could severely restrict our ability to keep our ATMs operating, which could subject us to performance penalties under our contracts with our customers.

We have encountered difficulty in obtaining cash supply arrangements in certain of our markets, including Greece, and directly provide cash for our ATM transactions in those markets. While the amounts involved are currently well within our capabilities given our cash flows and available financing, any failure to renew a major cash supply arrangement could require that we commit significant financial resources to the supply of cash to our ATM networks, which could adversely impact our results of operations.

If we are unable to maintain our money transfer agent and correspondent networks, our business may be adversely affected.

Our consumer-to-consumer money transfer-based revenues are primarily generated through the use of our agent and correspondent networks. If agents or correspondents decide to leave our network or if we are unable to sign new agents or correspondents, our revenue and profit growth rates may be adversely affected. Our agents and correspondents are also subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations that vary significantly, depending on the legal jurisdiction. Changes in these laws and regulations could adversely affect our ability to maintain the networks or the cost of providing money transfer services. In addition, agents may generate fewer transactions or less revenue due to various factors, including increased competition. Because our agents and correspondents are third parties that may sell products and provide services in addition to our money transfer services, they may encounter business difficulties unrelated to the provision of our services, which may cause the agents or correspondents to reduce their number of locations or hours of operation, or cease doing business altogether.

CORPORATE GROWTH STRATEGIES

Our business may suffer from risks related to acquisitions and potential future acquisitions.

A substantial portion of our growth has been due to acquisitions, and we continue to evaluate and engage in discussions concerning potential acquisition opportunities, some of which could be material. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully integrate, or otherwise realize anticipated benefits from, our recent acquisitions or any future acquisitions. Failure to successfully integrate or otherwise realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions could adversely impact our long-term competitiveness and profitability. The integration of any future acquisitions will involve a number of risks that could harm our financial condition, results of operations and competitive position. In particular:


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  • The integration plans for our acquisitions are based on benefits that involve assumptions as to future events, including our ability to successfully achieve anticipated synergies, leveraging our existing relationships, as well as general business and industry conditions, many of which are beyond our control and may not materialize. Unforeseen factors may offset components of our integration plans in whole or in part. As a result, our actual results may vary considerably, or be considerably delayed, compared to our estimates;
  • The integration process could disrupt the activities of the businesses that are being combined. The combination of companies requires, among other things, coordination of administrative and other functions. In addition, the loss of key employees, customers or vendors of acquired businesses could materially and adversely impact the integration of the acquired businesses;
  • The execution of our integration plans may divert the attention of our management from other key responsibilities;
  • We may assume unanticipated liabilities and contingencies; or
  • Our acquisition targets could fail to perform in accordance with our expectations at the time of purchase.

Future acquisitions may be affected through the issuance of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock, which could substantially dilute the ownership percentage of our current stockholders. In addition, shares issued in connection with future acquisitions could be publicly tradable, which could result in a material decrease in the market price of our common stock. Certain factors on which our ability to expand each of our divisions is dependent are set forth at Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Opportunities and Challenges. If any of such factors impede our ability to expand our businesses, the results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.


Our operating results depend, in part, on the volume of transactions on ATMs in our network and the fees we can collect from processing these transactions. We generally have little control over the ATM transaction fees established in the markets where we operate, and therefore, cannot control any potential reductions in these fees which may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Transaction fees from banks, customers and international card organizations for transactions processed on our ATMs have historically accounted for a substantial portion of our revenues. These fees are set by agreement among all banks in a particular market. The future operating results of our ATM business depend on the following factors:


      the acceptance of our ATM processing and management services in our target markets;

      the maintenance of the level of transaction fees we receive;

      the continued use of our ATMs by credit and debit cardholders; and

      our ability to generate revenues from interchange fees and from other value added services, including dynamic currency conversion.

 

The amount of fees we receive per transaction is set in various ways in the markets in which we do business. We have card acceptance agreements or ATM management agreements with some banks under which fees are set. However, we derive a significant portion of our revenues in many markets from interchange fees, surcharges or cash withdrawal related services that are set by the central ATM processing switch or various card organizations. The banks that participate in these switches or the card organizations that enable the services or transactions set the interchange fee and/or establish the rules regarding the services allowed, and we are not in a position in any market to greatly influence these fees or rules, which may change over time. A significant decrease in the interchange fee, or limitations placed on our ability to offer value added services via our ATM network, in any market could adversely affect our results in that market.


Although we believe that the volume of transactions in developing countries may increase due to growth in the number of cards being issued by banks in these markets, we anticipate that transaction levels on any given ATM in developing markets will not increase significantly. We can attempt to improve the levels of transactions on our ATM network overall by acquiring good sites for our ATMs, eliminating poor locations, entering new, less-developed markets and adding new transactions, including new value-added services, to the sets of transactions that are available on our ATMs. However, we may not be successful in materially increasing transaction levels through these measures. Per-transaction fees paid by international card organizations have declined in certain markets in the past and competitive factors have required us to reduce the transaction fees we charge customers. If we cannot continue to increase our transaction levels and per-transaction fees generally decline, our results will be adversely affected.


If consumer confidence in our business or brands declines, our business may be adversely affected.


Our business relies on customer confidence in our brands and our ability to provide efficient and reliable products and services across each of our segments. For our Money Transfer division, a decline in customer confidence in our business or brands, or in traditional money transfer providers as a means to transfer money, may adversely impact transaction volumes which would, in turn, be expected to adversely impact our business and possibly result in recording charges for the impairment of goodwill and/or other long-lived assets. 


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CAPITAL MARKETS AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS


We are subject to political tension, the outbreak of wars, pandemics, and economic downturns all over the world.


Economic conditions around the world, and in certain markets in which we do business, could impact sales price and volume. As a result, market uncertainty or an economic downturn driven by inflationary pressures; political tensions; war and related sanctions and export restrictions; terrorism; epidemics; pandemics; or political instability in the geographic regions or industries in which we provide services and products could reduce demand and result in decreased sales volume, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations.

 

In February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine resulting in the United States, Canada, the EU and other countries imposing economic sanctions on Russia. We suspended our operations and product offerings in Russia. This action has not had a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. However, the fluidity and continuation of the conflict may result in additional economic sanctions and other impacts which could have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. These include decreased sales; potential disruptions in neighboring countries where we have operations; volatility in foreign exchange rates and interest rates; inflationary pressures; and heightened cyber security threats. 


We are subject to business cycles, seasonality and other outside factors that may negatively affect our business.


A recessionary economic environment in any of our markets or other outside factors could have a negative impact on banks, mobile phone operators, content providers, retailers and our individual customers and could reduce the level of transactions in all of our divisions, which would, in turn, negatively impact our financial results. If banks, mobile phone operators and content providers experience decreased demand for their products and services, or if the locations where we provide services decrease in number, we will process fewer transactions, resulting in lower revenues. In addition, a recessionary economic environment could reduce the level of transactions taking place on our networks, which will have a negative impact on our business.


Our experience is that the level of transactions on our networks is also subject to substantial seasonal variation. In the EFT Processing Segment, mostly in Europe, we usually experience our heaviest demand for dynamic currency conversion during the third quarter of the fiscal year, coinciding with the tourism season in Europe. As a result, our revenues earned in the third quarter of the year will usually be greater than other quarters of the fiscal year. Additionally, transaction levels have consistently been higher in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year due to increased use of ATMs, prepaid products, and money transfer services during the holiday season. Generally, the level of transactions drops in the first quarter, during which transaction levels are generally the lowest we experience during the year, which reduces the level of revenues that we record.  In the Money Transfer Segment, we experience increased transaction levels during the May through October time frame, coinciding with certain holidays and the increase in worker migration patterns. As a result of these seasonal variations, our quarterly operating results may fluctuate materially and could lead to volatility in the price of our shares.


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Additionally, economic, or political instability, wars, civil unrest, terrorism, epidemics, pandemics, and natural disasters may make money transfers to, from or within a particular country more difficult. The inability to timely complete money transfers could adversely affect our business.


Economic cycles may lead us to recognize impairment charges related to long-lived assets and goodwill recorded in connection with our acquisitions, which would adversely impact our results of operations. Our total assets include approximately $1,015 million, or 17% of total assets, in goodwill and acquired intangible assets recorded as a result of acquisitions. We assess our goodwill, intangible assets, and other long-lived assets as and when required by accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. to determine whether they are impaired. We have had material impairment write-downs of goodwill and acquired intangible assets in the past and we may have additional impairment write-downs in the future. If operating results in any of our key markets deteriorate or our plans do not progress as expected when we acquired these entities, or if capital markets depress our value or that of similar companies, we may be required to record additional impairment write-downs of goodwill, intangible assets, or other long-lived assets. This could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.


We have a substantial amount of debt and other contractual commitments, and while the cost of servicing those obligations is not expected to adversely affect our business, the risk could increase if we incur more debt. We may be required to prepay our obligations under the credit facility. 


As of December 31, 2023, total liabilities were $4,645 million, of which $1,944 million represents long-term liabilities, and total assets were $5,894 million. We may not have sufficient funds to satisfy all such obligations as a result of a variety of factors, some of which may be beyond our control. If the opportunity of a strategic acquisition arises or if we enter into new contracts that require the installation or servicing of infrastructure, such as processing centers, ATM machines or POS terminals on a faster pace than anticipated, we may be required to incur additional debt for these purposes and to fund our working capital needs, including ATM network cash, which we may not be able to obtain. The level of our indebtedness could have important consequences to investors, including the following: 





our ability to obtain any necessary financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or other purposes may be limited, or financing may be unavailable;

a portion of our cash flows must be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness and other obligations and will not be available for use in our business;


our level of indebtedness could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the markets in which we operate;


our level of indebtedness will make us more vulnerable to changes in general economic conditions and/or a downturn in our business, thereby making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations; and

because a portion of our debt bears interest at a variable rate of interest, our actual debt service obligations could increase as a result of adverse changes in interest rates.


If we fail to make required debt payments, or if we fail to comply with other covenants in our debt service agreements, we would be in default under the terms of these agreements. This default would permit the holders of the indebtedness to accelerate repayment of this debt and could cause defaults under other indebtedness that we have.


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Restrictive covenants in our credit facilities may adversely affect us. Our Credit Facility (as defined below) contains two financial covenants that we must meet as defined in the agreement: (1) Consolidated Total Leverage Ratio, and (2) Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio. To remain in compliance with our debt covenants, we may be required to increase Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization ("EBITDA"), repay debt, or both. We cannot assure you that we will have sufficient assets, liquidity or EBITDA to meet or avoid these obligations, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.


Our ability to secure additional financing for growth or to refinance any of our existing debt is also dependent upon the availability of credit in the marketplace, which has experienced severe disruptions in the past. If we are unable to secure additional financing or such financing is not available at acceptable terms, we may be unable to secure financing for growth or refinance our debt obligations, if necessary.


Because we derive our revenues from a multitude of countries with different currencies, our business may be adversely affected by local inflation and foreign currency exchange rates and policies.


We report our results in U.S. dollars, although a majority of our income is realized in foreign currencies. As exchange rates among the U.S. dollar, the euro, and other currencies fluctuate, the impact of these fluctuations may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition as reported in U.S. dollars.


A significant number of our ATMs are located in countries in the EU that use the euro. From time to time, some of these countries have considered leaving the EU and adopting another currency. If such an event were to occur, the conversion of cash that we hold in banks and in our ATM network in that country from euros to another currency could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations, either from initial conversion or from subsequent changes in currency exchange rates. The magnitude of this risk increases when cash balances in our ATM network increase during the tourism season.


Our Money Transfer Segment is subject to foreign currency exchange risks because our customers deposit funds in one currency at our retail and agent locations worldwide or in an online account and we typically deliver funds denominated in a different, destination country currency. Although we use foreign currency derivative contracts to mitigate a portion of this risk, we cannot eliminate all of the exposure to the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates for the period between collection and disbursement of the money transfers


CYBER, PHYSICAL ASSET, AND DATA SECURITY


Because our business is highly dependent on the proper operation of our computer networks and telecommunications connections, significant technical disruptions to these systems would adversely affect our revenues and financial results.


Our business involves the operation and maintenance of sophisticated computer networks and telecommunications connections with financial institutions, mobile phone operators, other content providers, retailers, and agents. This, in turn, requires the maintenance of computer equipment and infrastructure, including telecommunications and electrical systems, and the integration and enhancement of complex software applications. There are operational risks inherent in this type of business that can result in the temporary shutdown of part or all of our processing systems, such as failure of electrical supply, failure of computer hardware, security breaches and software errors, computer viruses, ransomware and malware. Any operational problem in our processing centers may have a significant adverse impact on the operation of our networks. Even with disaster recovery procedures in place, these risks cannot be eliminated entirely, and any technical failure that prevents operation of our systems for a significant period of time will prevent us from processing transactions during that period of time and will directly and adversely affect our revenues and financial results.


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We are subject to security breaches of our systems or those of our partners. Any such breach may cause us to incur financial losses, liability, harm to our reputation, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions and limitations on our ability to conduct our businesses.

We and our partners capture, transmit, handle and store sensitive information in conducting and managing electronic, financial, and mobile transactions, such as card information, PIN numbers and personal information of various types. These businesses involve certain inherent security risks, in particular: the risk of electronic interception and theft of the information for use in fraudulent or other card transactions by persons outside the Company, including third party vendors or by our own employees; and the use of fraudulent cards on our network of owned or outsourced ATMs and POS devices. We incorporate industry-standard encryption technology and processing methodology into our systems and software and maintain controls and procedures regarding access to our computer systems by employees and others, to maintain high levels of security. Although this technology and methodology decreases security risks, they cannot be eliminated entirely as criminal elements apply increasingly sophisticated technology to attempt to obtain unauthorized access to the information handled by ATM, money transfer and electronic financial transaction networks. Our services and infrastructure are increasingly reliant on the internet. Computer networks and the internet are vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses and other disruptive problems such as denial of service attacks or other cyber-attacks carried out by cyber criminals or state-sponsored actors. Other potential attacks include attempts to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information or destroy data, often through the introduction of computer viruses, ransomware or malware, cyber-attacks, and other means, which are constantly evolving and difficult to detect. Those same parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers, vendors, or other users of our systems through phishing schemes or other methods to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or that of our customers or clients. In addition, the cost and timeframes required for implementation of new technology may result in a time lag between availability of such technology and our adoption of it. Further, our controls, procedures and technology may not be able to detect when there is a breach, causing a delay in our ability to mitigate it. As previously disclosed, we have been the subject of computer security breaches, and we cannot exclude the possibility of additional breaches in the future.

Any breach in our security systems could result in the perpetration of fraudulent financial transactions for which we may bear the liability. We are insured against various risks, including theft and negligence, but such insurance coverage is subject to deductibles, exclusions and limits that may leave us bearing some or all of any losses arising from security breaches.


We and our partners also collect, transfer, and retain personal data as part of our business. These activities are subject to certain privacy laws and regulations in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions where our services are offered. We maintain technical and operational safeguards designed to comply with applicable legal requirements. Despite these safeguards, there remains a risk that these safeguards could be breached resulting in improper access to, and disclosure of, sensitive customer information. Under state, federal, and foreign laws requiring consumer notification of security breaches, the costs to remediate security breaches can be substantial. Breaches of our security policies or applicable legal requirements resulting in a compromise of customer data could expose us to regulatory enforcement action, subject us to litigation, limit our ability to provide services and/or cause harm to our reputation. 


In addition to electronic fraud issues and breaches of our systems, the possible theft and vandalism of ATMs or cash in the ATMs present risks for our ATM business. We install ATMs at high-traffic sites and consequently our ATMs are exposed to theft and vandalism, and to attacks whereby the security of the ATM is breached electronically by transmitting a command to the ATM to dispense cash without a card being present.  We constantly monitor ATM security and take measures to protect our systems from such attacks and other breaches, but we cannot be certain that our measures will be effective against new, rapidly developing methods used by criminal elements. Although we are insured against such risks, deductibles, exclusions, or limitations in such insurance may leave us bearing some or all of any losses arising from theft or vandalism of ATMs or loss of cash due to security breaches of our ATM networks. In addition, we have experienced increases in claims under our insurance, which has increased our insurance premiums.

 

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Failures of third-party service providers we rely upon could lead to financial loss.

We rely on third party service providers to support key portions of our operations. We also rely on third party service providers to provide part or all of certain services we deliver to customers. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. The failure of these services by a third-party could have a material impact upon our delivery of services to customers. Such a failure could lead to damage claims, loss of customers, and reputational harm, depending on the duration and severity of the failure. Third parties perform significant operational services on our behalf. These third-party vendors are subject to similar risks as us relating to cybersecurity, breakdowns or failures of their own systems or employees. One or more of our vendors may experience a cybersecurity event or operational disruption and, if any such event does occur, it may not be adequately addressed, either operationally or financially, by the third-party vendor. Certain of our vendors may have limited indemnification obligations or may not have the financial capacity to satisfy their indemnification obligations. If a critical vendor is unable to meet our needs in a timely manner or if the services or products provided by such a vendor are terminated or otherwise delayed and if we are not able to develop alternative sources for these services and products quickly and cost-effectively, our customers could be negatively impacted, and it could have a material adverse effect on our business.


Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws, rules, policies and other obligations regarding data protection.

We are subject to an increasing number of federal, state, and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of various types of personal information. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also restrict transfers of personal information among us and its our international subsidiaries. Several jurisdictions have passed laws in this area, and additional jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions or have laws that are pending. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing requirements causes us to incur substantial costs and has required and may in the future require us to change its our business practices. Noncompliance could result in significant penalties or legal liability. We make statements about its our use and disclosure of personal information through its our privacy policy, information provided on its our website, press statements and other privacy notices provided to customers. Any failure by us to comply with these public statements or with other federal, state or international privacy or data protection laws and regulations could result in inquiries or proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In addition to reputational impacts, penalties could include ongoing audit requirements and significant legal liability. In addition to the risks generally relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personal information, we are also subject to specific obligations relating to information considered sensitive under applicable laws, such as health data, financial data and biometric data. Health data and financial data are subject to additional privacy, security and breach notification requirements, and we are subject to audit by governmental authorities regarding our compliance with these obligations. If we fail to adequately comply with these rules and requirements, or if health data or financial data is handled in a manner not permitted by law or under our agreements with healthcare or financial institutions, we can be subject to litigation or government investigations, and can be liable for associated investigatory expenses, and can also incur significant fees or fines. Payment card data is also subject to additional requirements. Under payment card rules and obligations, if cardholder information is potentially compromised, we can be liable for associated investigatory expenses and can also incur significant fees or fines if we fail to follow payment card industry data security standards. We could also experience a significant increase in payment card transaction costs or lose the ability to process payment cards if it fails we fail to follow payment card industry data security standards, which could materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.


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COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE


Our competition in the EFT Processing Segment, epay Segment and Money Transfer Segment includes large, well-financed companies and financial institutions larger than us with earlier entry into the market. As a result, we may lack the financial resources and access to capital needed to capture increased market share.


EFT Processing Segment - Our principal EFT Processing competitors include ATM networks owned by banks and national switches consisting of consortiums of local banks that provide outsourcing and transaction services only to banks and independent ATM deployers in that country. Large, well-financed companies offer ATM network and outsourcing services that compete with us in various markets. In some cases, these companies also sell a broader range of card and processing services than we do, and are, in some cases, willing to discount ATM services to obtain large contracts covering a broad range of services. Competitive factors in our EFT Processing Segment include network availability and response time, breadth of service offering, price to both the bank and to its customers, ATM location and access to other networks.


epay Segment - We face competition in the epay business in all of our markets. A few multinational companies operate in several of our markets, and we therefore compete with them in a number of countries. In other markets, our competition is from smaller, local companies. Major retailers with high volumes are in a position to demand a larger share of margin/commissions or to negotiate directly with the content providers, which may compress our margins. Additionally, certain of our content providers, including mobile phone operators have entered into direct contracts with retailers and/or have developed processing technology that diminishes or eliminates the need for intermediate processors and distributors.


Money Transfer Segment - Our primary competitors in the money transfer and bill payment business include other large money transfer companies and electronic money transmitters, as well as certain major national and regional banks, financial institutions, and independent sales organizations. Our competitors include The Western Union Company and MoneyGram International Inc. The Western Union Company has a significant competitive advantage due to its greater resources and access to capital for expansion. This may allow them to offer better pricing terms to customers, which may result in a loss of our current or potential customers or could force us to lower our prices. Either of these actions could have an adverse impact on our revenues. In addition, our competitors may have the ability to devote more financial and operational resources than we can to the development of new technologies that provide improved functionality and features to their product and service offerings. If successful, their development efforts could render our product and service offerings less desirable, resulting in the loss of customers or a reduction in the price we could demand for our services. In addition to traditional money payment services, new technologies are emerging that may effectively compete with traditional money payment services, such as stored-value cards, debit networks, web-based services, and digital currencies. Our continued growth depends upon our ability to compete effectively with these alternative technologies.


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Developments in payments could materially reduce our transaction levels and revenues. 

Certain developments in the field of payments may reduce the need for ATMs, prepaid product POS terminals and money transfer agents. An example of this type of development is the use of near field technology in retail transactions, which if widely accepted in a market reduces the need for cash and can negatively impact the level of ATM transactions in that market. Advances in biometric payment solutions could have similar adverse impacts. These developments may reduce the transaction levels that we experience on our networks in the markets where they occur. Financial institutions, retailers and agents could elect to increase fees to their customers for using our services, which may cause a decline in the use of our services and have an adverse effect on our revenues. If transaction levels over our existing network of ATMs, POS terminals, agents and other distribution methods do not increase, growth in our revenues will depend primarily on increased capital investment for new sites and developing new markets, which reduces the margin we realize from our revenues.

The mobile phone industry is a rapidly evolving area, in which technological developments, in particular the development of new billing models and distribution methods or services, may affect the demand for other services in a dramatic way. The development of any new models or technology that reduce the need or demand for prepaid mobile airtime could materially and adversely affect our business.

Competition in our EFT Processing Segment has increased over the last several years, increasing the risk that certain of our long-term bank outsourcing contracts may be terminated or not renewed upon expiration.

The developing markets in which we have done business have matured over the years, resulting in increasing competition. In addition, as consolidation of financial institutions in Central and Eastern Europe continues, certain of our customers have established or are establishing internal ATM management and processing capabilities. As a result of these developments, negotiations regarding renewal of contracts have become increasingly challenging and in certain cases we have reduced fees to extend contracts beyond their original terms. In certain other cases, contracts have been, and in the future may be, terminated by financial institutions resulting in a substantial reduction in revenue. Contract termination payments, if any, may be inadequate to replace revenues and operating income associated with these contracts.

GOVERNANCE MATTERS

We have various mechanisms in place to discourage takeover attempts, which may reduce or eliminate our stockholders' ability to sell their shares for a premium in a change of control transaction.


Various provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and of Delaware corporate law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control or takeover attempt of our company by a third party which our management and board of directors opposes. Public stockholders who might desire to participate in such a transaction may not have the opportunity to do so. These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede the ability of public stockholders to benefit from a change of control or change in our management and board of directors. These provisions include:

  • preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or to discourage a third party from acquiring, a majority of our outstanding voting stock;
  • classification of our directors into three classes with respect to the time for which they hold office;
  • supermajority voting requirements to amend the provision in our certificate of incorporation providing for the classification of our directors into three such classes;
  • non-cumulative voting for directors;
  • control by our board of directors of the size of our board of directors;
  • limitations on the ability of stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;
  • advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by our stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
  • an exclusive forum bylaw provision for all internal corporate claims.
31


Additionally, we are authorized to issue up to a total of 90 million shares of common stock, potentially diluting equity ownership of current holders and the share price of our common stock.  We believe that it is necessary to maintain a sufficient number of available authorized shares of our common stock in order to provide us with the flexibility to issue common stock for business purposes that may arise as deemed advisable by our Board. These purposes could include, among other things, (i) to declare future stock dividends or stock splits, which may increase the liquidity of our shares; (ii) the sale of stock to obtain additional capital or to acquire other companies or businesses, which could enhance our growth strategy or allow us to reduce debt if needed; (iii) use in additional stock incentive programs and (iv) other bona fide purposes. Our Board of Directors may issue the available authorized shares of common stock without notice to, or further action by, our stockholders, unless stockholder approval is required by law or the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market. The issuance of additional shares of common stock may significantly dilute the equity ownership of the current holders of our common stock. Further, over the course of time, all of the issued shares have the potential to be publicly traded, perhaps in large blocks. This may result in dilution of the market price of the common stock.

An additional 12.5 million shares of common stock, representing approximately 27% of the shares outstanding as of December 31, 2023, could be added to our total common stock outstanding through the exercise of options or the issuance of additional shares of our common stock pursuant to existing convertible debt and other agreements. Once issued, these shares of common stock could be traded into the market and result in a decrease in the market price of our common stock.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 5.1 million and 0.8 million options and restricted stock awards outstanding, respectively, held by our directors, officers and employees, which entitle these holders to acquire an equal number of shares of our common stock. Of this amount, 2.2 million options are vested and exercisable as of December 31, 2023. Approximately 3.9 million additional shares of our common stock may be issued in connection with our stock incentive and employee stock purchase plans. Accordingly, based on current trading prices of our common stock, approximately 3.3 million shares could potentially be added to our total current common stock outstanding through the exercise of options and the vesting of restricted stock awards, which could adversely impact the trading price for our stock. 

Of the 5.9 million total options and restricted stock awards outstanding, an  aggregate of $3.5 million options and restricted stock awards are held by persons who may be deemed to be our affiliates and who would be subject to Rule 144. Thus, upon exercise of their options or sale of shares for which restrictions have lapsed, these affiliates' shares would be subject to the trading restrictions imposed by Rule 144. The remainder of the common shares issuable under option and restricted stock award arrangements would be freely tradable in the public market. Over the course of time, all of the issued shares have the potential to be publicly traded, perhaps in large blocks. 

Upon the occurrence of certain events, another 2.8 million shares of common stock could be issued upon conversion of the Company's convertible notes issued in March 2019; in certain situations, the number of shares issuable could be higher. While we have stated that we intend to settle any conversion of these notes by issuing cash for the principal value of the notes and issuing shares of common stock for the conversion value in excess of the principal, which would significantly reduce the number of shares issued upon conversion, if our financial condition significantly and adversely changes, we may not be able to settle as intended should the notes be converted.

KEY PERSONNEL

Retaining the founder and key executives of our Company, and of companies that we acquire, and finding and retaining qualified personnel is important to our continued success, and any inability to attract and retain such personnel could harm our operations.

The development and implementation of our strategy has depended in large part on our co-founder, Michael J. Brown. The retention of Mr. Brown is important to our continued success. In addition, the success of the expansion of businesses that we acquire may depend in large part upon the retention of the founders or leaders of those businesses. Our success also depends in part on our ability to hire and retain highly skilled and qualified management, operating, marketing, financial and technical personnel. The competition for qualified personnel in the markets where we conduct our business is intense and, accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to hire or retain the required personnel.

Our officers and some of our key personnel have entered into service or employment agreements containing non-competition, non-disclosure, and non-solicitation covenants, which grant incentive stock options and/or restricted stock with long-term vesting requirements. However, most of these contracts do not guarantee that these individuals will continue their employment with us. The loss of our key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, growth, financial condition, or results of operations.

32


 

None.


Item 1C. Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy


We recognize that cyber threats are constantly evolving, and we must stay ahead of risks and threats to our business systems, data, infrastructure, and employees. We take a holistic approach to cybersecurity to proactively mitigate and respond to cyber threats. Building a robust security program and security controls are critical components that are in the core foundation of our products, culture, and management oversight. As a financial transaction processor, we ensure security is embedded and regarded with importance across the organization and within our products and services. We recognize the criticality of maintaining the safety, security, and integrity of our systems and data to protect our customers, employees, partners, and shareholders. The security program and cybersecurity strategies are strongly supported by both executive management and our Board of Directors. Our executive management fosters a strong culture of security awareness and responsibilities from the tone at the top and across all functional teams at all levels. The security team leadership also conducts segment level Board and/or periodic meetings with segment business leadership to share security key performance indicators ("KPIs") and risk considerations, as well as align with business strategies and gain approval for financial support for cybersecurity resources and tools. Security leadership is also involved in financial forecasting for security needs and costs, and the Chief Technology Officer ("CTO") and Chief Financial Officer or executive management team is involved in understanding and approving security related investments and strategies. We invest in our cybersecurity personnel and protections to address critical risks to our infrastructure and systems, and we remain dedicated to continuous improvement in our cybersecurity program. 

 

The Company’s CTO reports to our Chief Executive Officer and has been with Euronet 16 years and is responsible for developing and implementing our information security program and reporting on cybersecurity matters to the Board of Directors (the “Board”). Many on our Information Technology ("IT") security team leadership have over a decade of cybersecurity and IT control experience, certifications, and external and internal IT audit experience. The Chief Information Security Officer ("CISO") reports to executive management independent of IT and is responsible for management of cybersecurity risk, security governance and compliance, security policies, security training, and the overall protection and defense of our networks, systems, and company data. The CISO manages the global security governance, risk, and compliance teams and is responsible for ensuring we meet our regulatory and compliance requirements as related to PCI DSS, ISO 27001, and other certifications we hold globally that support our business products and services.  The Global Director of Cybersecurity reports to the CTO and manages our security toolbelt and implementations, incident response, alert management, and various technical security teams. The CISO and Global Director of Cybersecurity manage teams of cybersecurity professionals with broad experience and expertise, including PCI and other regulatory compliance, threat assessments and detection, forensic investigations, mitigation technologies, cybersecurity training, incident response, insider threats, third party risk, penetration testing, and security engineering expertise. Many members of the security leadership team across the organization have been with Euronet for more than 10 years. The global and segment security leadership teams work closely with legal, privacy, audit, and compliance teams to ensure we meet regulatory requirements and work together to address cyber risks in all functional areas of the organization. We also conduct strategic in person and virtual annual, quarterly, and monthly security meetings with key members of security and IT leadership to align on security priorities, initiatives, and requirements. 

 

Our Board of Directors is responsible for overseeing our enterprise risk management activities in general, and each of our Board committees assists the Board in the role of risk oversight. The full Board receives an update on our risk management process and the risk trends related to cybersecurity at least annually. The CTO attends all quarterly Board meetings and presents to the Board at a minimum of twice per year on security and cybersecurity KPIs and threat mitigations. The Audit Committee oversees risks including cybersecurity risks. Our internal audit team reports on cybersecurity risks and internal and external audit results to the Audit Committee. Internal Audit performs IT security and compliance audits for SOX 404 purposes, as well as testing Euronet’s security standards, and performs pre-assessments for ISO 27001. We also engage third party independent assessments for penetration testing, vulnerability assessments, and certification such as PCI DSS, ISO 27001, VISA PIN and SOC Type 1 and Type 2 audits. The CTO and CISO also have weekly and monthly meetings with senior executive management to discuss security strategy, projects, and concerns. We have an established incident response process led by our CISO governing our assessment, response, and notifications internally and externally upon the occurrence of a cybersecurity incident. Depending on the nature and severity of an incident, this process provides for escalating notification to our Chief Executive Officer, executive management team, and the Board as well as regulatory notifications depending on the jurisdiction and specifications of the incident.

 

33


While we evaluate all security incidents and consider the materiality of individual or combined incidents, to date, no incidents or combination of incidents have materially affected the Company or our financial position, results of operations, and/or cash flows. We continue to invest in cybersecurity to enhance the design and effectiveness of our internal controls and processes to protect our systems, networks, and integrity of our data.

 

Our approach to cybersecurity risk management includes the following key areas:


Risk Management and Policies - Our policies, standards, processes, and practices for assessing, identifying, and managing risks, including material risks, from cybersecurity threats are integrated into our overall security and risk management program and are based on frameworks established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”), the International Organization for Standardization ("ISO"), and other applicable industry standards and best practices. We regularly review and update policies and procedures with input from IT and security leadership and industry security standards including PCI DSS and ISO.  Business segments and local entities also maintain local policies and procedures that include global requirements and local, statutory, or contractual requirements and escalations. All employees must sign and acknowledge a Corporate Information Security Policy that outlines their responsibilities related to IT security, cybersecurity, and protection of company assets and data. In addition to the enterprise risk assessment presented to the Board, local entity IT and security teams maintain detailed risk assessments that are shared with local management and are provided for applicable regulatory requirements, as well.

Information Sharing and Collaboration -
We subscribe to financial services cyber intelligence and collaboration services, and we work closely with cyber intelligence and managed security service providers to augment our own security program and controls. We investigate intelligence sharing platforms to assess potential risks as credible or emerging risks.

 

Continuous Monitoring – We have security team members across all of our geographic business operations that support our key IT processing centers.  We have teams dedicated to investigating all security alerts and incidents at a global level or within our business segments.  Further, we have managed security service providers who provide 24x7 advanced threat detection and monitoring services to augment our security analyst teams.

 

Incident Response – We have a global incident response policy that is shared with key stakeholders and outlines our classification, escalation, investigation, reporting, and overall response procedures depending on the classification and severity of incidents. Local IT teams must also create a local incident response plan and playbooks for addressing various types of incidents and handling escalations and reporting obligations locally. Further, we engage external forensic investigations as necessary to augment our incident reporting process if deemed critical and/or necessary for prompt response to security incidents which may require a higher technical level of forensics and/or resources to quickly assess and respond to certain incidents.


Training and Awareness - We provide security awareness training to our employees and contractors to help identify, mitigate, and report on cybersecurity threats. Our employees with network access must complete quarterly security awareness training which includes multiple interactive and video training modules with passing scores required to complete training compliance. We require annual PCI DSS and GDPR training as well as any other regulatory required security training. We also perform simulated phishing campaigns to further test security training effectiveness. We also periodically host tabletop exercises with IT and management to test and evaluate our incident response plan or playbooks.


Insider Threats - We implement insider threat controls designed to identify, assess, and address potential risks from within our Company. We implement controls and tools to alert on suspicious or unusual insider activity, and we have rigorous controls in place to prevent data loss and external sharing of company information. We consider and evaluate potential risks consistent with industry practices, customer requirements and applicable law, including privacy and other considerations.


Third Party Risk Assessments - We conduct information security assessments before sharing or allowing the hosting of data in computing environments managed by third parties or allowing third parties to connect to our environment. We also review and amend legal terms and conditions to ensure there are contractual provisions requiring certain security protections and incident reporting. We also perform vendor risk assessments to assess the risk of new and existing vendors we conduct business with.

 

External Assessments – We engage external assessors to evaluate, test, and conclude on the design and effectiveness of security controls and processes. We engage quality assessors for vulnerability and penetration testing as well as for security certification and/or regulatory requirements. Further, we have external audits performed by customers, banking and government regulators, and public accounting firms as part of financial and statutory audit purposes. In 2023, we did not identify any cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, despite our efforts, we cannot eliminate all risks from cybersecurity threats, or provide assurances that we have not experienced undetected cybersecurity incidents. 


For more information on security and cybersecurity threats we face, please see “Risk Factors.”


34


Item 2. Properties

 

Our executive offices are located in Leawood, Kansas. As of December 31, 2023, we also have 35 principal offices in Europe, 14 in Asia Pacific, 10 in North America, three in the Middle East, two in South America and three in Africa. Our office leases generally provide for initial terms ranging from two to twelve years.

 

Our processing centers for the EFT Processing Segment are located in Germany, Hungary, India, China, and Pakistan. Processing centers we operate for the epay Segment are located in the U.K., Germany, Italy, and the U.S. Our processing centers for the Money Transfer Segment are located in the U.S., the U.K., New Zealand, and Malaysia.

 

All of our processing centers are leased and have off-site real time backup processing centers that are capable of providing full or partial processing services in the event of failure of the primary processing centers.

 

The Company is, from time to time, a party to legal or regulatory proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business. 


The discussion regarding litigation in Part II, Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data and Note 20, Litigation and Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Currently, there are no legal or regulatory proceedings that management believes, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect upon the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company. In accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("U.S. GAAP"), we record a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These liabilities are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to a particular case or proceeding.

 

 

Not applicable.


 

 

Market Information   

 

Our common stock, $0.02 par value per share, is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol EEFT. 

 

Dividends

 

Since our inception, we have not paid dividends on our common stock. We do not intend to distribute dividends for the foreseeable future.


Holders

 

At December 31, 2023, we had 50 stockholders of record of our common stock, and none of our preferred stock was outstanding. This figure does not include an estimate of the indeterminate number of beneficial holders whose shares may be held of record by brokerage firms and clearing agencies.


35


Private Placements and Issuances of Equity 

 

During 2023, we did not issue any equity securities that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, which have not been previously reported in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or a Current Report on Form 8-K.


Stock Performance Graph

 

The following graph compares Euronet Worldwide Inc.’s annual percentage change in cumulative total return on common shares over the past five years with the cumulative total return of companies comprising the Nasdaq Composite index and the Nasdaq US Benchmark Financial Services TR Index. This presentation assumes that $100 was invested in shares of the relevant issuers on December 31, 2018, and that dividends received were immediately invested in additional shares. The graph plots the value of the initial $100 investment at one-year intervals for the fiscal years shown.


The following performance graph and related text are being furnished to and not filed with the SEC, and will not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Exchange Act or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate such information by reference into such filing. 


Graphics


Equity Compensation Plan Information


Refer to Part II, Item 8Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 16, Stock Plans, and Part III, Item 12Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, for information related to our equity compensation plans.


36


Stock Repurchases

 

The following table provides information with respect to shares of the Company's Common Stock that were purchased during the three months ended December 31, 2023.

 

Period

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased

 

Average Price Paid per Share

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

 

Maximum Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Programs (in millions) (1)

October 1 - October 31, 2023

 

49,116

 

 

$

79.09

 

 

49,116

 

 

$

496.6

 

November 1 - November 30, 2023

 

__

 

 

__

 

 

__

 

 

496.6

 

December 1 - December 31, 2023

 

503,521

 

 

99.30

 

 

503,521

 

 

446.6

 

Total

 

552,637

 

 

$

97.50

 

 

  552,637

 

 

 

 

(1On September 13, 2022, the Company put a repurchase program in place to repurchase up to $350 million in value, but not more than 7.0 million shares of common stock through September 13, 2024. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 96.6 million in value of additional shares were available to be repurchased under this repurchase program. On September 13, 2023, the Company put a repurchase program in place to repurchase up to $350 million in value, but not more than 7.0 million shares of common stock through September 13, 2025. As of December 31, 2023, all shares were available to be repurchased under this repurchase program. Repurchases under the programs may take place in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, including derivative transactions, and may be made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan.

Item 6. Reserved

 


The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This section of the Form 10-K generally discusses 2023 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022


Company Overview, Geographic Locations and Principal Products and Services 


Euronet is a leading financial technology solutions and payments provider. We offer payment and transaction processing and distribution solutions to financial institutions, retailers, service providers and individual consumers. Our primary product offerings include comprehensive ATM, POS, card outsourcing, card issuing and merchant acquiring services, software solutions, electronic distribution of prepaid mobile airtime and other electronic payment products, foreign currency exchange services and global money transfer services. We operate in the following three segments:


1Our Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) segment meets the needs of financial institutions and consumers through Euronet-owned and outsourced ATMs and POS terminals combined with value added and transaction processing services. We deploy and operate our own ATMs, providing ATM services for financial institutions and providing electronic payment processing solutions. EFT offers a suite of integrated electronic financial transaction software solutions for electronic payment and transaction delivery systems. Transactions processed span a network of 47,303 ATMs, as of December 31, 2023, and approximately 656,000 POS terminals. 


2Our epay segment provides retail payment solutions and delivers innovative connections between the digital content of the world’s leading brands and consumers. epay has one of the largest retail networks across Europe and Asia for the distribution of physical and digital third-party content, including branded payments, mobile, and alternative payments, partnering with 1,000+ of the world’s leading brands. In addition, through our own products, we have leveraged our technology to solve business challenges, delivering scalable solutions to drive efficiency and effectiveness. Our comprehensive range of consumer products simplifies transactions and provides financial convenience across a wide range of branded payments. epay operates in 60+ countries. We operate a network that includes approximately 821,000 POS terminals that enable electronic processing of prepaid mobile airtime "top-up" services and other digital media content.


37


3) Our Money Transfer segment provides global money transfers and currency exchange information in retail stores, apps, and websites through Ria Money Transfer, Xe and the Dandelion cross-border real-time payments network. Euronet’s Money Transfer segment offers real-time, cross-border payments to consumers and businesses across 198 countries and territories, enabling banks, fintechs and big tech platforms to integrate an international payments solution into their own platforms.  Ria Money Transfer offers real-time international money transfers with a special focus on emerging markets. In addition, Ria offers safe and affordable money transfers through a global network of cash locations and online, serving over 20 million customers annually. Xe offers web and app-based currency information and industry-leading consumer and business cross-border money transfer services. Customers can send money, buy property overseas, and execute other international payments via the Xe website or app. Dandelion offers consumer and business transaction processing and fulfillment with alternative payout channels like bank accounts, cash pick-up and mobile wallets. Dandelion powers cross-border payments for Xe and Ria, as well as third party banks, fintechs, and big tech platforms.


We have six processing centers in Europe, five in Asia Pacific and two in North America. We have 35 principal offices in Europe, 14 in Asia Pacific, 10 in North America, three in the Middle East, two in South America and three in Africa. Our executive offices are located in Leawood, Kansas, USA. With approximately 76% of our revenues denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, any significant changes in foreign currency exchange rates will likely have a significant impact on our results of operations (for a further discussion, see Item 1A - Risk Factors and Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk).


Sources of Revenues and Cash Flow 


Euronet earns revenues and income primarily from ATM management fees, transaction fees, commissions, and foreign currency exchange margin. Each operating segment's sources of revenue are described below.


EFT Processing Segment — Revenues in the EFT Processing Segment, which represented approximately 29% of total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, are derived from fees charged for transactions made by cardholders on our proprietary network of ATMs, fixed management fees and transaction fees we charge to customers for operating ATMs and processing debit and credit cards under outsourcing and cross-border acquiring agreements, foreign currency exchange margin on DCC transactions, domestic and international surcharge, foreign currency dispensing and other value added services such as advertising, prepaid telecommunication recharges, bill payment, and money transfers provided over ATMs. Revenues in this segment are also derived from cardless payments, banknote recycling, tax refund services, license fees, professional services and maintenance fees for proprietary application software and sales of related hardware.


epay Segment — Revenues in the epay Segment, which represented approximately 29% of total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, are primarily derived from commissions or processing fees received from mobile phone operators for the processing and distribution of prepaid mobile airtime and commissions earned from the distribution of other electronic content, vouchers, and physical gifts. The proportion of epay Segment revenues earned from the distribution of prepaid mobile phone time as compared with other electronic products has decreased over time, and digital media content now produces approximately 67% of epay Segment revenues. Other electronic content offered by this segment includes digital content such as music, games, and software, as well as other products including prepaid long distance calling card plans, prepaid Internet plans, prepaid debit cards, gift cards, vouchers, transport payments, lottery payments, bill payment, and money transfer.


Money Transfer Segment — Revenues in the Money Transfer Segment, which represented approximately 42% of total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, are primarily derived from transaction fees, as well as the margin earned from purchasing foreign currency at wholesale exchange rates and selling the foreign currency to customers at retail exchange rates. We have a sending agent network in place comprised of agents, customer service representatives, Company-owned stores, primarily in North America, Europe and Malaysia, Ria, and xe branded websites, along with a worldwide network of correspondent agents, consisting primarily of financial institutions in the transfer destination countries. Under the brand "Dandelion", Ria offers payment processing services to third party partners. The Dandelion cross-border payments platform provides financial institutions, fintechs such as digital wallets and banks, and enterprise software companies access to Euronet's money transfer network through an API connection. Sending and correspondent agents each earn fees for cash collection and distribution services, which are recognized as direct operating costs at the time of sale.


38


Corporate Services, Eliminations and Other — In addition to operating in our principal operating segments described above, our "Corporate Services, Eliminations and Other" category includes non-operating activity, certain inter-segment eliminations and the cost of providing corporate and other administrative services to the operating segments, including most share-based compensation expenses. These services are not directly identifiable with our reportable operating segments. 


Opportunities and Challenges

The global product markets in which we operate are large and fragmented, which poses both opportunities and challenges for our technology to disrupt new and existing competition. As an organization, our focus is on increasing our market presence through both physical (ATMs, POS terminals, stores, and agent correspondents) and digital assets and providing new and improved products and services for customers through all of our channels, which may in turn drive an increase in the number of transactions on our networks. Each of these opportunities also presents us with challenges, including differentiating our portfolio of products and services in highly competitive markets, the successful development and implementation of our software products and access to financing for expansion.

1) The EFT Processing Segment opportunities include physical expansion into target markets, developing value added products or services, increasing high value DCC and surcharge transactions and efficiently leveraging our portfolio of software solutions. Our opportunities are dependent on renewing and expanding our card acceptance, ATM and POS management and outsourcing, cash supply and other commercial agreements with customers and financial institutions. Operational challenges in the EFT Processing Segment include obtaining and maintaining the required licenses and sponsorship agreements in markets in which we operate and navigating frequently changing rules imposed by international card organizations, such as Visa® and Mastercard®, that govern ATM interchange fees, direct access fees and other restrictions. Our profitability is dependent on the laws and regulations that govern DCC transactions, specifically in the E.U., increasing expansion of prepaid forex cards, as well as the laws and regulations of each country that we operate in that may impact the volume of cross-border and cross-currency transactions. The timing and amount of revenues in the EFT Processing Segment is uncertain and unpredictable due to inherent limitations in managing our estate of ATMs, which is dependent on contracts that cover large numbers of ATMs, which are complicated by legal and regulatory considerations of local countries, as well as our customers' decisions whether to outsource ATMs.

2The epay Segment opportunities include renewing existing and negotiating new agreements in target markets in which we operate, primarily with mobile operators, digital content providers, financial institutions, and retailers. The overall growth rate in the prepaid mobile phone and digital media content markets, shifts between prepaid and postpaid services, and our market share in those respective markets will have a significant impact on our ability to maintain and grow the epay Segment revenues. There is significant competition in these markets that may impact our ability to grow organically and increase the margin we earn and the margin that we pay to retailers. The profitability of the epay Segment is dependent on our ability to adapt to new technologies that may compete with POS distribution of digital content and prepaid mobile airtime, as well as our ability to leverage cross-selling opportunities with our EFT and Money Transfer Segments. The epay Segment opportunities may be impacted by government-imposed restrictions on retailers and/or content providers with whom we partner in countries in which we have a presence, and corresponding licensure requirements mandated upon such parties to legally operate in such countries.
39


3)The Money Transfer Segment opportunities include expanding our portfolio of products and services to new and existing customers around the globe, which in turn may lead to an increase in transaction volumes. The opportunities to expand are contingent on our ability to effectively leverage our network of bank accounts for digital money transfer delivery, maintaining our physical agent network, cross selling opportunities with our EFT and epay segments and our penetration into high growth money transfer corridors. The challenges inherit in these opportunities include maintaining compliance with all regulatory requirements, maintaining all required licenses, ensuring the recoverability of funds advanced to agents and the continued reliance on the technologies required to operate our business. The volume of transactions processed on our network is impacted by shifts in our customer base, which can change rapidly with worker migration patterns and changes in unbanked populations across the globe. Foreign regulations that impact cross-border migration patterns and the money transfer markets can significantly impact our ability to grow the number of transactions on our network.


For all segments, our continued expansion may involve additional acquisitions that could divert our resources and management time and require integration of new assets with our existing networks and services. Our ability to effectively manage our growth has required us to expand our operating systems and employee base, particularly at the management level, which has added incremental operating costs. An inability to continue to effectively manage expansion could have a material adverse effect on our business, growth, financial condition, or results of operations. Inadequate technology and resources would impair our ability to maintain current processing technology and efficiencies, as well as deliver new and innovative services to compete in the marketplace.

Segment Revenues and Operating Income For The Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022


 

 

Revenues

 

Operating Income (Expense)

(in millions)

 

2023

 

2022

 

2023

 

2022

EFT Processing

 

$

1,058.3

 

 

$

 924.2

 

 

$

206.3

 

$

184.0

epay

 

1,082.4

 

 

997.9

 

 

126.2

 

 

120.7

 

Money Transfer

 

1,555.2

 

 

1,444.5

 

 

185.4

 

 

154.5

 

Total

 

3,695.9

 

 

3,366.6

 

 

517.9

 

 

459.2

 

Corporate services, eliminations and other

 

(7.9

)

 

(7.8

)

 

(85.3

)

 

(73.8

)

Total

 

$

3,688.0

 

 

$

3,358.8

 

 

$

432.6

 

 

$

385.4

 

 

40


Summary

 

Our annual consolidated revenues increased by 9.8% for 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in revenues for 2023 was primarily due to the increases in transaction volumes across all three segments.


Our annual consolidated operating income increased by 12.2% for 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in operating income for 2023 was primarily due to the increases in transaction volumes across all three segments.


Net income attributable to Euronet for 2023 was $279.7 million, or $5.50 per diluted share compared to a net income attributable to Euronet for 2022 of $231.0 million, or $4.41 per diluted share.


Impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates

 

Our revenues and local expenses are recorded in the functional currencies of our operating entities, and then are translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes; therefore, amounts we earn outside the U.S. are negatively impacted by a stronger U.S. dollar and positively impacted by a weaker U.S. dollar. Considering the results by country and the associated functional currency, our 2023 consolidated operating income was approximately 0.2% higher due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates when compared to 2022. If significant, in our discussion we will refer to the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates in our comparison of operating segment results.


To provide further perspective on the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, the following table shows the changes in values relative to the U.S. dollar during 2023 and 2022, of the currencies of the countries in which we have our most significant operations: 

 

 

 

Average Translation Rate Year Ended December 31,

 

2023 Increase (Decrease) Percent

Currency

 

2023

 

2022

 

Australian dollar

 

$

0.6644

 

 

$

0.6949

 

 

(4.4)

%

British pound

 

$

1.2435

 

 

$

1.2374

 

 

0.5

%
Canadian dollar
$ 0.7412

$ 0.7691

(3.6) %

euro

 

$

1.0813

 

 

$

1.0541

 

 

2.6

%

Hungarian forint

 

$

0.0028

 

 

$

0.0027

 

 

3.7

%

Indian rupee

 

$

0.0121

 

 

$

0.0127

 

 

(4.7)

%

Malaysian ringgit

 

$

0.2197

 

 

$

0.2278

 

 

(3.6)

%

New Zealand dollar

 

$

0.6141

 

 

$

0.6361

 

 

(3.5)

%

Polish zloty

 

$

0.2385

 

 

$

0.2255

 

 

5.8

%

41


Comparison of Operating Results For The Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 - By Operating Segment

 

EFT Processing Segment

 

The following table summarizes the results of operations for our EFT Processing Segment for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:


 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Year-over-Year Change

(dollar amounts in millions)

 

2023

 

2022

 

Increase (Decrease) Amount

 

Increase (Decrease) Percent

Total revenues

 

$

1,058.3

 

 

$

924.2

 

 

$

134.1

 

14.5

%

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct operating costs

 

572.1

 

 

475.8

 

 

96.3

 

20.2

%

Salaries and benefits

 

126.5

 

 

111.9

 

 

14.6

 

13.0

%

Selling, general and administrative

 

58.8

 

 

57.1

 

 

1.7

 

3.0

%

Depreciation and amortization

 

94.6

 

 

95.4

 

 

(0.8

)

 

(0.8)

%

Total operating expenses

 

852.0

 

 

740.2

 

 

111.8

 

15.1

%

Operating income

 

$

206.3

 

$

184.0

 

$

22.3

 

12.1

%

Transactions processed (millions)

 

8,473

 

 

6,459

 

 

2,014

 

31.2

%

Active ATMs as of December 31

 

47,303

 

 

45,009

 

 

2,294

 

5.1

%

Average active ATMs

 

49,080

 

 

47,166

 

 

1,914

 

4.1

%


Revenues

EFT Processing Segment total revenues were $1,058.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $134.1 million or 14.5compared to the same period in 2022. Revenues increased for the year ended December 31,2023 compared to the same period in 2022 due to an increase in average active ATMs, an increase in our most profitable international transactions driven by cross-border recovery levels, corresponding DCC and surcharge revenues and continued expansion to new markets. Foreign currency movements increased revenues by approximately $9.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022.  

Revenue per transaction was $0.12 for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $0.14 for the same period in 2022The decrease in revenue per transaction was driven by an increase in high volume low value transactions initiated through digital wallets. 

Average monthly revenues per ATM increased to $1,797 for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $1,633 for the same period in 2022.

Direct operating costs

EFT Processing Segment direct operating costs were $572.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $96.3 million or 20.2% compared to the same period in 2022. Direct operating costs primarily consist of site rental fees, cash delivery costs, cash supply costs, maintenance, insurance, telecommunications, payment scheme processing fees, data center operations-related personnel, as well as the processing centers’ facility-related costs and other processing center-related expenses and commissions paid to retail merchants, banks and card processors involved with POS DCC transactions. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the increase in direct operating costs was primarily due to the increase in transaction volumes, and costs associated with modifying our estate of ATMs. Foreign currency movements increased direct operating costs by approximately $7.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022.


42


Gross profit


Gross profit, which is calculated as revenues less direct operating costs, was $486.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $37.8 million or 8.4% compared to $448.4 million for the same period in 2022. Gross profit as a percentage of revenues (“gross margin”) decreased to 45.9% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 48.5% for the same period in 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the increase in gross profit was primarily driven by the revenue increase from additional transaction volumes into new geographies.


Salaries and benefits


Salaries and benefits expenses were $126.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $14.6 million or 13.0% compared to the same period in 2022. The increase in salaries and benefits for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 was primarily driven by an increased headcount and an increase in pay rate and bonuses. As a percentage of revenues, these expenses decreased to 12.0% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 12.1% for the same period in 2022.


Selling, general and administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses were $58.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $1.7 million or 3.0% compared to the same period in 2022. As a percentage of revenues, these expenses decreased to 5.6% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 6.2% for the same period in 2022.

Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation and amortization expenses were $94.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of $0.8 million or 0.8compared to the same period in 2022.  As a percentage of revenues, these expenses decreased to 8.9% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 10.3% for the same period in 2023.

Operating income

EFT Processing Segment had operating income of $206.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to operating income of $184.0 million in 2022, an increase of $22.3 million compared to the same period in 2022. Operating income as a percentage of revenues (“operating margin”) decreased to 19.5% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 19.9% for the same period in 2022. Operating income per transaction was $0.02 for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $0.03 for the same period in 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the increase in operating income and decrease in operating margin was primarily driven by the increase in the number of transactions processed in a region where we generally earn lower revenues per transaction.


43


epay Segment

 

The following table summarizes the results of operations for our epay Segment for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:


 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Year-over-Year Change

(dollar amounts in millions)

 

2023

 

2022

 

Increase Amount

 

Increase (Decrease) Percent

Total revenues

 

$

1,082.4

 

 

$

997.9

 

 

$

84.5

 

8.5

%

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct operating costs

 

819.1

 

 

753.2

 

 

65.9

 

8.7

%

Salaries and benefits

 

91.1

 

 

81.8

 

 

9.3

 

 

11.4

%

Selling, general and administrative

 

39.1

 

 

36.0

 

 

3.1

 

8.6

%

Depreciation and amortization

 

6.9

 

 

6.2

 

 

0.7

 

11.3

%

Total operating expenses

 

956.2

 

 

877.2

 

 

79.0

 

9.0

%

Operating income

 

$

126.2

 

 

$

120.7

 

 

$

5.5

 

4.6

%

Transactions processed (billions)